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The overhead athlete: examination, testing, and treatment of shoulder instability

      The overhead athlete places significant demands on the shoulder, and injuries are common. Sports at risk include baseball, throwing positions in football and soccer, racquet sports, swimming, and golf. Changes in flexibility and endurance associated with the athlete’s age may predispose the shoulder to injury.
      • Abrams J.S.
      Special shoulder problems in the throwing athlete Pathology, diagnosis and nonoperative management.
      The baseball pitcher is a unique athlete that emphasizes flexibility and power. Anatomic changes, physiologic adaptations, and injuries are commonly found. Although this type of athlete has been identified as the “classic overhead athlete,” we should also recognize different age groups playing different sports in this section.
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