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Throwing injuries: diagnosis and treatment

      The throwing shoulder represents the ultimate function of the human shoulder. The ability to throw has evolved over the years from the hunters and warriors of yesterday to the “Pedros” of today. These are truly gifted athletes. From a genetic standpoint, they possess the perfect tissue composition that responds to repetitive stress in such a manner that it produces a shoulder with a perfect balance of mobility and stability. This is a situation that Kevin Wilk terms “the thrower’s paradox”: “Lax enough to allow excessive external rotation but stable enough to prevent symptomatic subluxations.”
      • Wilk K.E.
      • Arrigo C.
      Current Concepts in the rehabilitation of the athletic shoulder.
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