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Autologous chondrocyte implantation of the talus

      Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) was first attempted in 1987 for treatment of articular cartilage lesions of the knee.
      • Brittberg M.
      • Lindahl A.
      • Nilsson A.
      • Ohlsson C.
      • Isaksson O.
      • Peterson L.
      Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation.
      Long-term studies with up to 9-year follow-up have recently been reported with promising results.
      • Peterson L.
      • Minas T.
      • Brittbert M.
      • Nilsson A.
      • Sjogren-Jansson E.
      • Lindahl A.
      Two to 9 year outcome after autologous chondrocyte transplantation of the knee.
      Consequently, the use of ACI has expanded to other parts of the body. Although the data and follow-up is limited, the implementation of ACI in other joints including the shoulder, elbow, and ankle has been reported.
      • Bradley J.P.
      • Petrie R.S.
      Osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum. Diagnosis and treatment.
      ,
      • Romeo A.A.
      • Cole B.J.
      • Mazzocca A.D.
      • Fox J.A.
      • Freeman K.B.
      • Joy E.
      Autologous chondrocyte repair of an articular defect in the humeral head.
      ,
      • Koulalis D.
      • Schultz W.
      • Heyden M.
      Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for osteochondritis dissecans of the talus.
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