The overhead athlete: how to examine, test, and treat shoulder injuries. Intra-articular pathology

      The overhead athlete typically places demands on his or her shoulder that far exceed activities for the normal population. Intra-articular pathology in the overhead athlete includes microinstability, SLAP tears, internal impingement, biceps tendinopathy, and partial articular surface rotator cuff tears. The fact that these pathologies are interrelated and often coexist creates a challenge in identifying specific etiologies. The pathomechanics involved in the overhand throwing motion and the internal impingement phenomenon in particular are complex. Treatment of these entities in the past has produced mixed results. As the results of valuable research accumulate, more unified models are evolving that begin to better explain the breadth of clinical findings. With a more complete understanding comes the hope of more effective treatment strategies.
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