Instructions for Authors

        7. References

        The Journal follows the reference style given in the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” (see N Engl J Med. 1997;336:309-315 or References must be cited in the text by number and must appear in numerical order. Please do not include unpublished material or personal communications in your reference list. If necessary to your message, include unpublished material in the body of the text and end the statement with the appropriate information in parentheses. For example: (M. Scanlon, MD, personal communication, month and year of personal communication).
        Your reference list should be typed double-spaced and appear after the text but before the tables. Provide all authors’ names when six or fewer; when seven or more, list the first three and add et al. For abbreviations of journal names, refer to the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus ( Also, provide article titles and inclusive page numbers (321-328, not 321-8). Accuracy of reference data is the responsibility of all authors.
        Use these examples when formatting your references:
        • Periodical
          • 1
            Altchek DW, Carson EW. Arthroscopic acromioplasty: Current status. Orthop Clin North Am. 1997;28:157-168.
        • Chapter in a book
          • 2
            Ruch DS, Poehling GG. Operative arthroscopy of the wrist. In: Andrews JR, Timmerman LA, eds. Diagnostic and Operative Arthroscopy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1997:199-205.
        • Book
          • 3
            DeLee JC, Drez D, eds. Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1994.
        • Web-only article
        Please refrain from using end notes or automatic list numbering for references because these features are lost during production by the publisher; instead, type reference numbers in parentheses in the text (avoid superscript!) and type the reference list that appears at the end of the text.
        The reference list, tables, and figure legends must appear at the end of the manuscript.

        8. Tables

        Tables should be neatly typed, each on a separate page, with a short descriptive title above the tabular data and any notes below. Define all abbreviations. Do not give the same information in tables that you give in the text or in figures.

        9. Figures

        Upload the files for your figures as you do the other parts of your manuscript.
        Remove from figures any identifying features such as authors’ names or institutions because we send blinded manuscripts to reviewers. Graphs and drawings should be of professional quality. Radiographs or clinical photos: Remove all markings (such as patients’ initials, dates, names of institutions) from imaging. Any labels (eg, arrows or lettering) must be of professional quality. These identifying labels must be large enough to be legible when the figure is minified. Sequences of radiographs should be of identical magnification. The subject should be centered in clinical photographs. Crop extraneous material and background before capturing the image electronically. In the manuscript, give each figure a separate, fully explicit legend. Give each part of a figure its own legend. All abbreviations and symbols used on figures must be defined.
        Images should be in EPS or TIF format. Graphics software such as Photoshop or Illustrator should be used to create your illustrations. Do not use presentation software such as PowerPoint, CorelDraw, or Harvard Graphics. Color images must be CMYK, of at least 300 DPI resolution. Gray scale images must have at least 300 DPI resolution. Combinations of gray scale and line art must be at least 1200 DPI resolution. Likewise, line art (black-and-white or color) must be at least 1200 DPI resolution.
        Permissions: Photographs in which a person’s face is recognizable must be accompanied by a letter of release from that person explicitly granting permission for publication in the Journal. For any material previously published, written permission for both print and electronic reprint rights must be obtained from the copyright holder. Authors are also responsible for paying any fees required by copyright holders to reprint material.
        Color figures are accepted only when color is necessary to convey clinical information. Authors are encouraged to submit black-and-white digital images whenever possible.
        Arthroscopy will assume the cost of publishing a limited number of color figures, the selection of which will be made by the Editor. The publication of color figures beyond this limited number will be charged back to the authors, who will receive a prepublication quotation of charges. Authors will retain the option of either publishing their figures in color at the quoted charge or providing black-and-white figures to be used instead.

        Details of Style

        Drug names: Use only generic names in referring to drugs. After first mention, add in parentheses any commonly used variant generic.
        Abbreviations: Follow the AMA Manual of Style (available from online booksellers).


        Proofs must be returned within 2 days of receipt; late return may delay publication of an article. Please check text, references, tables, figures, and legends carefully. To expedite publication, electronic page proofs rather than galleys will be sent to the corresponding author, and it may therefore be necessary to charge for alterations other than correction of printing errors.