Arthroscopy and Endoscopy of the Foot and Ankle: Indications for New Techniques


      The scope of arthroscopy and endoscopy of the foot and ankle is expanding. New techniques are emerging to deal with diverse ankle pathology. Some of the conditions that can be dealt with arthroscopically are as follows: hallux valgus deformity, lesser toe deformity, first metatarsophalangeal instability, cock-up deformity of the big toe, peroneal tendon instability, lateral ankle and subtalar instability, hindfoot deformity or arthrosis, first metatarsocuneiform hypermobility, Lisfranc joint arthrosis, various stages of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency, foot and ankle arthrofibrosis, late complications after calcaneal fracture, acute and chronic Achilles tendon rupture, insertional Achilles tendinopathy, entrapment of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve, Freiberg’s infarction, flexor digitorum longus tenosynovitis, flexor hallucis longus pathology, calcaneonavicular coalition or “too-long” anterior process of the calcaneus, and ganglions. With sound knowledge regarding the indications, merits, and potential risks of new techniques, they will be powerful tools in foot and ankle surgery.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Arthroscopy
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Lui T.H.
        • Ng S.
        • Chan K.B.
        Endoscopic distal soft tissue procedure in hallux valgus surgery.
        Arthroscopy. 2005; 21 (Available online at 1403.e1-1403.e7
      1. Lui TH. Arthroscopic assisted repair of claw toe or overriding toe deformity: Plantar plate tenodesis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg in press, available online 27 September, 2006. doi:10.1007/s00402-006-0224-4.

        • Lui T.H.
        Endoscopic peroneal retinaculum reconstruction.
        Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2006; 14: 478-481
        • van Dijk C.
        • Kort N.
        Tendoscopy of the peroneal tendons.
        Arthroscopy. 1998; 14: 471-478
      2. Lui TH. Arthroscopic-assisted lateral ligamentous reconstruction in combined ankle and subtalar instability. Arthroscopy in press, available online 20 January, 2007. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2006.07.038.

        • Maiotti M.
        • Massoni C.
        • Tarantino U.
        The use of arthroscopic thermal shrinkage to treat chronic lateral ankle instability in young athletes.
        Arthroscopy. 2005; 21: 751-757
        • Lui T.H.
        New technique of arthroscopic triple arthrodesis.
        Arthroscopy. 2006; 22 (Available online at 464.e1-464.e5
        • Lui T.H.
        • Chan K.B.
        • Ng S.
        Arthroscopic Lapidus arthrodesis.
        Arthroscopy. 2005; 21 (Available online at 1516.e1-1516.e4
        • Coughlin M.J.
        • Jones C.P.
        • Viladot R.
        • Glano P.
        • Grebing B.R.
        • Kennedy M.J.
        Hallux valgus and first ray mobility: A cadaveric study.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2004; 25: 537-544
      3. Lui TH. Arthroscopic tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) arthrodesis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc in press, available online 21 July, 2006. doi:10.1007/s00167-006-0142-6.

        • Chow H.T.
        • Chan K.B.
        • Lui T.H.
        Tendoscopic debridement for stage I posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.
        Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005; 13: 695-698
      4. Lui TH. Endoscopic assisted posterior tibial tendon reconstruction for stage 2 posterior tibial tendon insufficiency. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc in press, available online 19 January, 2007. doi:10.1007/s00167-006-0282-8.

        • Maquirriain J.
        • Sammartino M.
        • Ghisi J.P.
        • Mazzuco J.
        Tibialis anterior tenosynovitis: Avoiding extensor retinaculum damage during endoscopic debridement.
        Arthroscopy. 2003; 19: 9e
        • Lui T.H.
        Arthroscopic release of first metatarsophalangeal arthrofibrosis.
        Arthroscopy. 2006; 22 (Available online at 906.e1-906.e4
        • Lui T.H.
        Arthroscopic subtalar release of post-traumatic subtalar stiffness.
        Arthroscopy. 2006; 22 (Available online at 1364.e1-1364.e4
        • Lui T.H.
        • Chan W.K.
        • Chan K.B.
        Arthroscopic management of frozen ankle.
        Arthroscopy. 2006; 22: 283-286
        • Acevedo J.I.
        • Busch M.T.
        • Ganey T.M.
        • Hutton W.C.
        • Ogden J.A.
        Coaxial portals for posterior ankle arthroscopy: An anatomic study with clinical correlation on 29 patients.
        Arthroscopy. 2000; 16: 836-842
        • Sim J.A.
        • Lee B.K.
        • Kwak J.H.
        New posteromedial portal for ankle arthroscopy.
        Arthroscopy. 2006; 22 (Available online at 799.e1-799.e2
        • van Dijk C.N.
        • Scholten P.E.
        • Krips R.
        A 2-portal endoscopic approach for diagnosis and treatment of posterior ankle pathology.
        Arthroscopy. 2000; 16: 871-876
        • Yilmaz C.
        • Eskandari M.M.
        Arthroscopic excision of the talar Stieda’s process.
        Arthroscopy. 2006; 22 (Available online at 225.e1-225.e3
        • Jung H.G.
        • Yoo M.J.
        • Kim M.H.
        Late sequelae of secondary Haglund’s deformity after malunion of tongue type calcaneal fracture: Report of two cases.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2002; 23: 1014-1017
        • van Dijk C.N.
        • van Dyk E.
        • Scholten P.E.
        • Kort N.P.
        Endoscopic calcaneoplasty.
        Am J Sports Med. 2001; 29: 185-189
        • Lui T.H.
        Endoscopic lateral calcaneal ostectomy for calcaneofibular impingement.
        Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2007; (In press)
      5. Lui TH. Endoscopic-assisted Achilles tendon repair with plantaris tendon augmentation. Arthroscopy in press, available online 8 January, 2007. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2006.07.053.

        • Lui T.H.
        Reattachment of Achilles tendon after endoscopic calcaneoplasty.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2007; (In press)
        • Blanco C.E.R.
        • Leon H.O.
        • Guthrie T.B.
        Endoscopic treatment of calcaneal spur syndrome: A comprehensive technique.
        Arthroscopy. 2001; 17: 517-522
      6. Lui TH. Arthroscopic interpositional arthroplasty for Freiberg’s disease. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc in press, available online 15 August, 2006. doi:10.1007/s00167-006-0189-4.

        • Lui T.H.
        • Chow H.T.
        Role of toe flexor tendoscopy in the management of an unusual cause of metatarsalgia.
        Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2006; 14: 654-658
        • Lui T.H.
        Arthroscopic resection of the calcaneonavicular coalition or the “too-long” anterior process of the calcaneus.
        Arthroscopy. 2006; 22 (Available online at 903.e1-903.e4
        • Osterman A.L.
        • Raphael J.S.
        Arthroscopic resection of dorsal ganglion of the wrist.
        Hand Clin. 1995; 11: 7-12