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Arthroscopy and Endoscopy of the Foot and Ankle: Indications for New Techniques

      Abstract

      The scope of arthroscopy and endoscopy of the foot and ankle is expanding. New techniques are emerging to deal with diverse ankle pathology. Some of the conditions that can be dealt with arthroscopically are as follows: hallux valgus deformity, lesser toe deformity, first metatarsophalangeal instability, cock-up deformity of the big toe, peroneal tendon instability, lateral ankle and subtalar instability, hindfoot deformity or arthrosis, first metatarsocuneiform hypermobility, Lisfranc joint arthrosis, various stages of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency, foot and ankle arthrofibrosis, late complications after calcaneal fracture, acute and chronic Achilles tendon rupture, insertional Achilles tendinopathy, entrapment of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve, Freiberg’s infarction, flexor digitorum longus tenosynovitis, flexor hallucis longus pathology, calcaneonavicular coalition or “too-long” anterior process of the calcaneus, and ganglions. With sound knowledge regarding the indications, merits, and potential risks of new techniques, they will be powerful tools in foot and ankle surgery.

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