A case of popliteal artery aneurysm after arthroscopic cystectomy of a popliteal cyst is an uncommon complication, and no case has been reported. We present a case of pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery after arthroscopic cystectomy of a popliteal cyst 2 months after surgery. Open excision of the pseudoaneurysm and popliteal artery pin-point repair were done. At 30 months' follow-up, both the tibialis posterior and dorsalis pedis pulsations were felt equally on both sides with normal sensations over the limb. Retrospectively reviewing the case, we found that the relation of the popliteal artery and popliteal cyst on preoperative magnetic resonance images can predict the complication of pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery. It is better not to shave the lateral aspect of the cyst while performing arthroscopic cystectomy when magnetic resonance images show that the popliteal artery is close to the cyst.
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