During comfortable walking the TKA and control groups walked at similar speeds although the TKA group had a significantly reduced cadence (p=0.005). The TKA group had a reduced knee flexion angle during both loading (p<0.001) and swing (p=0.001), reduced internal tibial rotation (p<0.001), and increased external tibial rotation (p<0.001). Kinetically, 87% of patients walked with a biphasic sagittal knee moment pattern that is associated with normal gait. Despite this, the TKA group had reduced maximum flexion (p=0.012), adduction (p<0.001) and external rotation (p=0.022) moments at the knee compared to the controls. Similar differences between patients and controls for these parameters were seen at the fast speed.
Compared to comfortable walking, the TKA and control groups increased their cadence during fast walking by 23% and 20% respectively, and both groups increased their stride length by 17%. Both groups demonstrated similar changes in knee angles when walking at fast speed compared to comfortable speed. However, despite similar increases in the ground reaction force for both groups, the knee flexion and adduction moments of the TKA group did not increase during fast walking at the same rate as the control group. The increase in flexion and adduction moments by the TKA group was 51% and 23% compared to the control group increases of 66% and 37%.