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Recurrent Instability After Revision Anterior Shoulder Stabilization Surgery

      Purpose

      The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to compare outcomes of revision anterior stabilization surgeries based on technique. This study also sought to compare the impact of bone defects on outcomes.

      Methods

      A systematic review of the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus was performed in July 2012 and March 2013. Of 345 articles identified in the search, 17 studies with Level I to IV Evidence satisfied the inclusion criteria and were analyzed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Recurrent instability was defined as redislocation, resubluxation, or a positive apprehensive test after revision surgery. Procedures were categorized as arthroscopic Bankart repair, open Bankart repair, Bristow-Latarjet procedure, and other open procedures.

      Results

      In total, 388 shoulders were studied. Male patients comprised 74.1% of patients, 66.7% of cases involved the dominant shoulder, the mean age was 28.2 years, and the mean follow-up period was 44.2 months. The surgical procedures classified as “other open procedures” had the highest rate of recurrent instability (42.7%), followed by arthroscopic Bankart repair (14.7%), the Bristow-Latarjet procedure (14.3%), and open Bankart repair (5.5%). Inconsistent reporting of bone defects precluded drawing significant conclusions.

      Conclusions

      A number of different procedures are used to address recurrent instability after a primary operation for anterior shoulder instability has failed. There is significant variability in the rate of recurrent instability after revision anterior shoulder stabilization surgery.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, systematic review of Level I to IV studies.
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