### Purpose

### Methods

### Results

*P*= .95), mean temperature (26.16°C and 26.99°C, respectively;

*P*= .44), minimum temperature (22.66°C and 23.94°C, respectively;

*P*= .54), and baseline temperature (26.80°C and 27.93°C, respectively;

*P*= .35). Similarly, no significant differences were found for operative time (82.90 minutes and 80.50 minutes, respectively;

*P*= .72) and mean diathermy activation times (2.6 minutes for both systems;

*P*= .90). The between-system coefficient of variation for the measured parameters ranged from 0.12% to 3.69%. No intra-articular readings above the temperature likely to damage chondrocytes were recorded. The mean irrigation fluid temperature had a significant correlation with the maximum temperature reached during the procedure (Spearman rank correlation,

*r*= 0.87;

*P*< .01).

### Conclusions

### Level of Evidence

## Methods

### Trial Design

^{4}

*y*= 0.7955

*x*+ 0.1284 and

*y*= 1.1096

*x*− 0.1132, respectively). On the basis of these calculations, the worthwhile differences of the current sample size of 20 per group and a hypothetical sample size of 10 per group were 0.93% and 1.32%, respectively.

### Statistics

_{10}[

*x*]) before analyses. The measures of central tendency and dispersion are reported as mean ± standard deviation. By use of the log10[

*x*] data, the intersystem CV (% CV = Standard deviation × 100/Mean) of the dependent variables was calculated. Furthermore, differences in the dependent variables between the Stryker and ArthroCare systems were determined using analysis of covariance with 3 separate surgeons treated as a covariate. The correlations between dependent variables were examined by use of the Pearson correlation coefficient for pooled data, as well as the correlations for the Stryker and ArthroCare systems. The level of significance was established at .05.

## Results

*P*> .05, Fig 1, Fig 2, Fig 3). The mean values (log

_{10}[

*x*]) for the maximum temperature in the standard ablation and plasma ablation groups were 29.77°C and 29.34°C, respectively (CV, 1.01%); the mean temperature was 26.16°C and 26.99°C, respectively (CV, 0.96%). The operative times for the standard and plasma ablation groups were 82.90 minutes and 80.50 minutes, respectively (CV, 2.08%). The mean diathermy activation time was 2.6 minutes for each group (CV, 1.91%).

*P*> .05). The intersystem CVs ranged from 1.2% to 3.6% (Table 1). For the correlation analyses of the pooled data (i.e., standard RF and plasma RF systems combined), significant correlations were found between a number of dependent variables (

*P*< .05, Table 2). The minimum temperature had a strong correlation (

*r*= 0.74,

*P*< .001) with the maximum temperature recorded for both systems combined. This correlation was also seen when the 2 systems were analyzed independently:

*r*= 0.63 and

*P*= .005 for standard ablation and

*r*= 0.86 and

*P*< .001 for plasma ablation (Tables 3 and 4). The mean temperature for both systems correlated with the maximum temperature (

*r*= 0.86,

*P*< .001); again, this was also seen when both systems were analyzed independently:

*r*= 0.85 and

*P*< .001 for standard ablation and

*r*= 0.91 and

*P*< .001 for plasma ablation.

_{10}[

*x*]) Means of Dependent Variables

Parameter | Mean (log_{10}[x]) | CV, % | PD, % | P Value | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Standard RF Ablation | Plasma Ablation | ||||

No. of ports | 2.95 (0.47) | 2.95 (0.47) | 0.12 | 0 | .97 |

Pressure, mm Hg | 65.71 (1.82) | 62.37 (1.79) | 3.69 | 1.25 | .34 |

Surgery, min | 82.90 (1.92) | 80.50 (1.91) | 2.08 | 0.67 | .72 |

Temperature, min | 47.9 (1.68) | 47.6 (1.68) | 0.44 | 0.16 | .74 |

Diathermy, min | 2.60 (0.41) | 2.60 (0.41) | 1.91 | 2.81 | .90 |

Mean temperature, °C | 26.16 (1.42) | 26.99 (1.43) | 2.22 | 0.96 | .44 |

Minimum temperature, °C | 22.66 (1.36) | 23.94 (1.38) | 2.89 | 1.73 | .54 |

Maximum temperature, °C | 29.77 (1.47) | 29.34 (1.47) | 1.01 | 0.42 | .95 |

Baseline temperature, °C | 26.80 (1.42) | 27.93 (1.44) | 2.93 | 4.1 | .35 |

*P*< .05.

Parameter | Pressure | Surgery | Temperature | Diathermy | Mean Temperature | Minimum Temperature | Maximum Temperature | Baseline Temperature |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Ports | r = −0.08P = .61 | r = 0.40P = .01 | r = 0.38P = .02 | r = −0.01P = .95 | r = −0.24P = .14 | r = −0.12P = .45 | r = −0.14P = .40 | r = 0.21P = .21 |

Pressure | — | r = 0.34P = .03 | r = 0.21P = .19 | r = −0.02P = .90 | r = −0.32P = .046 | r = −0.47P = .006 | r = −0.25P = .12 | r = 0.06P = .72 |

Surgery | — | — | r = 0.75P < .001 | r = −0.009P = .96 | r = −0.25P = .13 | r = −0.30P = .06 | r = −0.16P = .33 | r = 0.13P = .45 |

Temperature | — | — | — | r = 0.13P = .43 | r = −0.30P = .06 | r = −0.32P = .047 | r = −0.28P = .08 | r = 0.19P = .27 |

Diathermy | — | — | — | — | r = 0.19P = .26 | r = 0.05P = .76 | r = −0.02P = .93 | r = 0.18P = .31 |

Mean temperature | — | — | — | — | — | r = 0.88P < .0001 | r = 0.86P < .001 | r = −0.04P = .83 |

Minimum temperature | — | — | — | — | — | — | r = 0.74P < .001 | r = −0.03P = .92 |

Maximum temperature | — | — | — | — | — | — | — | r = 0.02P = .92 |

Parameter | Pressure | Surgery | Temperature | Diathermy | Mean Temperature | Minimum Temperature | Maximum Temperature | Baseline Temperature |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Ports | r = −0.313P = .17 | r = 0.19P = .42 | r = 0.23P = .33 | r = −0.30P = .22 | r = −0.18P = .43 | r = −0.01P = .98 | r = −0.09P = .70 | r = 0.20P = .39 |

Pressure | — | r = 0.23P = .31 | r = 0.09P = .70 | r = −0.01P = .96 | r = −0.05P = .84 | r = −0.23P = .31 | r = −0.01P = .96 | r = 0.14P = .55 |

Surgery | — | — | r = 0.71P < .001 | r = −0.04P = .87 | r = −0.24P = .29 | r = −0.37P = .10 | r = −0.22P = .34 | r = 0.04P = .22 |

Temperature | — | — | — | r = 0.12P = .63 | r = −0.47P = .03 | r = −0.48P = .03 | r = −0.39P = .08 | r = −0.21P = .35 |

Diathermy | — | — | — | — | r = 0.39P = .10 | r = 0.29P = .25 | r = 0.05P = .84 | r = 0.10P = .71 |

Mean temperature | — | — | — | — | — | r = 0.85P < .001 | r = 0.82P < .001 | r = −0.15P = .53 |

Minimum temperature | — | — | — | — | — | — | r = 0.63P = .005 | r = −0.08P = .75 |

Maximum temperature | — | — | — | — | — | — | — | r = −0.13P = .57 |

Parameter | Pressure | Surgery | Temperature | Diathermy | Mean Temperature | Minimum Temperature | Maximum Temperature | Baseline Temperature |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Ports | r = 0.13P = .59 | r = 0.71P < .001 | r = 0.58P = .01 | r = 0.29P = .22 | r = −0.29P = .21 | r = −0.23P = .34 | r = −0.18P = .46 | r = 0.23P = .41 |

Pressure | — | r = 0.49P = .04 | r = 0.30P = .22 | r = 0.01P = .96 | r = −0.56P = .01 | r = −0.63P = .008 | r = −0.50P = .03 | r = −0.10P = .72 |

Surgery | — | — | r = 0.76P < .001 | r = 0.04P = .89 | r = −0.21P = .39 | r = −0.18P = .45 | r = −0.13P = .59 | r = 0.32P = .25 |

Temperature | — | — | — | r = 0.14P = .57 | r = −0.13P = .61 | r = −0.19P = .44 | r = −0.13P = .61 | r = 0.61P = .02 |

Diathermy | — | — | — | — | r = −0.05P = .83 | r = −0.12P = .64 | r = −0.11P = .64 | r = 0.27P = .34 |

Mean temperature | — | — | — | — | — | r = 0.91P < .001 | r = 0.95P < .01 | r = 0.14P = .61 |

Minimum temperature | — | — | — | — | — | — | r = 0.86P < .001 | r = 0.04P = .90 |

Maximum temperature | — | — | — | — | — | — | — | r = 0.28P = .30 |

## Discussion

^{3}

^{2}

### Limitations

## Conclusions

## Acknowledgment

## References

- Temperature requirements for altering the morphology of osteoarthritic and nonarthritic articular cartilage: In vitro thermal alteration of articular cartilage.
*Am J Sports Med.*2004; 32: 688-692 - Glenohumeral chondrolysis after shoulder arthroscopy with thermal capsulorrhaphy.
*Arthroscopy.*2007; 23: 1-5 - Factors influencing intra-articular fluid temperature profiles with radiofrequency ablation.
*J Bone Joint Surg Am.*2009; 91: 2448-2454 - Method agreement and measurement error in the physiology of exercise.in: Winter E.M. Jones A.M. Davison R.C.R. Bromley P.D. Mercer T.H. Sport and exercise physiology testing guidelines: Volume 1—sport testing. Routledge, London2006: 41-48
- The reliability of lower extremity and thoracic kinematics at various running speeds.
*Int J Sports Med.*2012; 33: 364-369 - In vivo temperature measurement in the subacromial bursa during arthroscopic subacromial decompression.
*J Shoulder Elbow Surg.*2012; 21: 804-807 - The effect of normal saline irrigation at different temperatures on the surface of articular cartilage: An experimental study in the rat.
*Arthroscopy.*2004; 20: 55-61 - Basic science research in thermal ablation.
*Surg Oncol Clin N Am.*2011; 20: 237-258 - Joint chondrolysis.
*J Bone Joint Surg Am.*2011; 93: 2033-2044

## Article Info

### Publication History

### Footnotes

The authors report the following potential conflict of interest or source of funding: B.M., M.W., P.E., K.H., and V.M. receive support from Argo, Device Technologies (Arthrex). S.M. receives support from Dr. Peter McEwen. This project received no external funding grants. The project was funded entirely by the Orthopaedic Research Institute of Queensland (ORIQL). ORIQL receives annual funding from Argo and Device Technologies for its Arthroplasty Fellowship Program. These fellowships support the research and contribute to salary for the Research Assistant and Research Fellows.

### Identification

### Copyright

### User License

Creative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial – NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) |## Permitted

### For non-commercial purposes:

- Read, print & download
- Redistribute or republish the final article
- Text & data mine
- Translate the article (private use only, not for distribution)
- Reuse portions or extracts from the article in other works

## Not Permitted

- Sell or re-use for commercial purposes
- Distribute translations or adaptations of the article

Elsevier's open access license policy