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Shoulder Arthroscopy in Adults 60 or Older: Risk Factors That Correlate With Postoperative Complications in the First 30 Days

      Purpose

      To investigate the 30-day postoperative adverse event (AE) rates of adults 60 years or older after shoulder arthroscopy and identify risk factors for complications in this patient population.

      Methods

      Patients aged 60 or more who underwent shoulder arthroscopy were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program database from 2006 to 2013 using 12 Current Procedural Terminology codes related to shoulder arthroscopy. Complications were categorized as severe AEs, minor AEs, and infectious AEs for separate analyses. Pearson's χ2 tests were used to identify associations between patient characteristics and AE occurrence and binary logistic regression for multivariate analysis of independent risk factors.

      Results

      In total, 7,867 patients were included for analysis. Overall, 1.6% (n = 127) of the older adults experienced at least one AE with 1.1% (n = 90) severe AEs, 0.6% (n = 46) minor AEs, and 0.4% (n = 28) infectious complications. Multivariate analysis revealed that age 80 years or older (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-2.7, P = .01), body mass index greater than 35 (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.7, P = .01), functionally dependent status (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.3-6.8, P = .01), American Society of Anesthesiologists class greater than 2 (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.2, P = .04), congestive heart failure (OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 1.8-21.2, P = .03), disseminated cancer (OR = 7.9, 95% CI = 1.4-43.9, P = .02), and existence of an open wound at the time of surgery (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.1-14.6, P = .03) were independently associated with the occurrence of an AE. Nineteen of the patients included in the study required readmission to the hospital within the 30-day period for an overall readmission rate of 0.2%.

      Conclusions

      Patients 60 years or older who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for a variety of indications have a low overall 30-day postoperative complication rate of 1.6%. Although low, this is a higher rate than previously reported for the overall shoulder arthroscopy population. Independent patient characteristics associated with increased risk of AE occurrence included age 80 years or older, body mass index greater than 35, functional dependent status, American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or 4, congestive heart failure, disseminated cancer, and existence of an open wound.

      Level of Evidence

      Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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