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Arthroscopic Subscapularis Augmentation of Bankart Repair in Chronic Anterior Shoulder Instability With Bone Loss Less Than 25% and Capsular Deficiency: Clinical Multicenter Study

Published:November 19, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2016.09.008

      Purpose

      To assess the short-term outcomes of the arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation (ASA) technique, consisting of a tenodesis of the upper third of the subscapularis tendon and a Bankart repair, and its effect on shoulder external rotation.

      Methods

      Patients selected for this study were involved in contact sports, with a history of traumatic recurrent shoulder dislocations and a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were patients with glenoid bone loss (GBL) ranging from 5% to 25%, anterior capsular deficiency, and Hill-Sachs lesion who underwent ASA technique. Exclusion criteria were GBL >25%, multidirectional instability, preexisting osteoarthritis, and overhead sports activities. Visual analog scale (VAS) scale for pain, Rowe score, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores were used to assess results. Loss of shoulder external rotation was measured with the arm at the side (ER1 position) or 90° in abduction (ER2 position). Analysis of variance and Fisher tests were used for data evaluation. Significance was established at P ≤ .05.

      Results

      One hundred ten patients (84 men and 26 women, mean age 27 years) were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 40.5 months (range: 24 to 65 months). In 98 patients, a Hill-Sachs lesion was observed and in 57 patients a capsular deficiency was present. Three patients (2.7%) had a traumatic redislocation. At final follow-up, the mean scores were as follows: VAS scale decreased from a mean of 3.5 to 0.5 (P = .015), Rowe score increased from 57.4 to 95.3 (P = .035), and ASES score increased from 66.5 to 96.5 (P = .021). The mean deficit of external rotation was 8° ± 2.5° in the ER1 position and 4° ± 1.5° in the ER2 position.

      Conclusions

      The ASA procedure has been shown to be effective in restoring joint stability in patients practicing sports, affected by chronic anterior shoulder instability associated with anterior GBL (<25%), capsular deficiency, and Hill-Sachs lesions, with mild restriction of external rotation.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, therapeutic case series.
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