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Long-Term Survival Analysis and Outcomes of Meniscal Allograft Transplantation With Minimum 10-Year Follow-Up: A Systematic Review

      Purpose

      To investigate the long-term survivorship rates and functional outcomes of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) in patients with minimum 10-year postoperative follow-up.

      Methods

      Two reviewers independently searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed from database inception for literature related to MAT according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Data are reported in a narrative summary fashion with descriptive statistics.

      Results

      Eleven studies with a total of 658 patients and 688 MATs were included. Mean age of patients was 33.1 years (range 14-66), of whom 63% were male. Mean survivorship rates were 73.5% at 10-year and 60.3% at 15-year follow-up, with 2 studies reporting 19- and 24-year survivorship of 50% and 15.1%, respectively. Pre- and postoperative Lysholm scores ranged from 36 to 60.5 and 61 to 75, respectively. Pre- and postoperative Tegner scores ranged from 1 to 3 and 2.5 to 4.6, respectively. Postoperative Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subset scores were as follows: Pain: 61.6 to 76.3; Symptoms: 57.9 to 61.8; Function in Daily Living: 68.5 to 79.9; Sport and Recreation: 33.9 to 49.3; Quality of Life: 37.3 to 45.9. Postoperative International Knee Documentation Committee scores ranged from 46 to 77. Regarding surgical technique, 194 MAT bone-fixation technique (53.8%) and 165 MAT suture-only fixation techniques (46.2%) were reported. The most common type of allograft used was cryopreserved (54.5% of the allografts). The most frequent concomitant procedures performed with MAT were to address chondral (20.8% of the cases) and ligament injuries (12.4% of the cases), and realignment procedures (9.4% of the cases). The most common complications observed that were not directly related to concomitant procedures were meniscal allograft partial tears (11.1%), arthrofibrosis (3.6%), and infection (2.0%). Several criteria were used among studies to define failure of MAT, the most common parameters being removal of meniscal allograft (8/11 studies) and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (7/11 studies).

      Conclusions

      MAT can yield good long-term survivorship rates, with 73.5% and 60.3% of allografts remaining functional after 10 and 15 years, respectively. Functional outcomes 10 years after MAT were fair and improved compared with preoperative scores.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, systematic review of Level III and IV studies.
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