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Cyclic and Load-to-Failure Properties of All-Suture Anchors in Human Cadaveric Shoulder Glenoid Bone

      Purpose

      To evaluate the cyclic displacement and ultimate load to failure of 4 all-suture anchors in human cadaveric shoulder glenoid bone.

      Methods

      Four all-suture anchors indicated for glenoid labral repair were tested in 14 matched pairs of human cadaveric fresh-frozen glenoids. Anchors were inserted at 4 different locations for a total of 112 tests (12-, 3-, 6-, and 9-o’clock positions for right glenoids). Cyclic loading (10 to 60 N at 1 Hz for 200 cycles) and single pull-to-failure testing (33 mm/s) were performed. A Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance with the Dunn multiple-comparison post hoc test was used for statistical analysis.

      Results

      One matched pair was excluded because of poor bone quality. Thus, 13 matched pairs were included in the study, and a total of 104 tests were performed. The Q-Fix anchors showed significantly less displacement after 100 cycles (mean ± standard deviation, 1.40 ± 0.97 mm; P < .001) and 200 cycles (1.53 ± 1.00 mm, P < .001) than all other anchors tested. The Q-Fix (191.3 ± 65.8 N), Suturefix (188.3 ± 61.4 N), and JuggerKnot (183.6 ± 63.5 N) anchors had significantly greater ultimate loads to failure than the Iconix anchors (143.5 ± 54.1 N) (P = .01, P = .012, and P = .021, respectively). Displacement greater than 5 mm occurred in 6 Iconix anchors (22.1%), 5 Suturefix anchors (19.2%), 4 JuggerKnot anchors (15.4%), and 0 Q-Fix anchors (0%).

      Conclusions

      The Q-Fix anchors showed less displacement with cyclic loading than the Iconix, JuggerKnot, and Suturefix anchors. The Iconix anchors had a lower ultimate load to failure than the Q-Fix, Suturefix, and JuggerKnot anchors. Only the Q-Fix group had no anchors displace greater than 5 mm with cyclic loading.

      Clinical Relevance

      All-suture anchors vary in their deployment mechanism, which may alter their strength and performance. Operators must be aware of these anchors' propensity to displace while deploying them.
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      Linked Article

      • Editorial Commentary: All-Suture Shoulder Glenoid Anchors: Can We Adequately Tension Them or Knot?
        ArthroscopyVol. 35Issue 7
        • Preview
          All-suture anchors require smaller drill holes (often under 2.0 mm) than comparable solid glenoid anchors (e.g., Gryphon: 2.5-mm drill). A smaller drill allows closer anchor approximation, but there is no indication that this improves repair biomechanics. In fact closely associated multiple fixation points are associated with glenoid fractures, and the same multiple fixation points can be achieved with double- or triple-loaded conventional anchors. All-suture anchors require deployment immediately adjacent to intact cortical bone.
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