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Clinical Outcomes After Biceps Tenodesis or Tenotomy Using Subpectoral Pain to Guide Management in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tears

      Purpose

      To assess whether preoperative subpectoral tenderness in patients with rotator cuff tears was associated with arthroscopic findings of tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps, as well as whether they had resolution of their subpectoral tenderness postoperatively after tenodesis or tenotomy.

      Methods

      Patients presenting between 2011 and 2016 undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were evaluated preoperatively with the subpectoral biceps test (SBT). This test is performed with the arm adducted and internally rotated to allow palpation of the biceps as it courses under the pectoralis major tendon. Preoperative SBT findings determined operative management with either tenodesis or tenotomy during rotator cuff repair. Patients were followed up postoperatively to assess resolution of subpectoral tenderness with a repeated SBT. Preoperative and postoperative Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and Constant-Murley scores were recorded in all patients.

      Results

      A total of 128 patients were enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 58 years (range, 33-82 years). Patients with a positive preoperative SBT (n = 68) had significantly lower SANE and Constant-Murley scores preoperatively (P < .01) than patients with a negative SBT (n = 60). All patients with a positive preoperative SBT underwent either tenodesis or tenotomy, with 94% of patients (n = 64) having resolution of subpectoral pain and tenderness at final follow-up. Intraoperatively, 93% of patients with a positive SBT showed gross pathologic changes in the tendon (fraying, erythema, tears, or subluxation) compared with only 65% of patients with negative preoperative examination findings (P < .01). American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Constant-Murley, and SANE scores were significantly increased postoperatively in all patients (P = .02).

      Conclusions

      In this group of patients with rotator cuff tears surgically treated with concomitant biceps tenodesis or tenotomy, 94% had resolution of their subpectoral tenderness. A positive SBT was associated with gross pathologic changes of the biceps in 93% of patients.

      Level of Evidence

      Level III, prospective comparative study.
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      Linked Article

      • Editorial Commentary: Biceps Tendon Tenderness… Is It Enough to Guide Surgical Management?
        ArthroscopyVol. 35Issue 7
        • Preview
          Pathology of the long head of the biceps tendon is often encountered concurrently with rotator cuff tears. Although both preoperative and intraoperative evaluations may play a role in the decision-making process of when and how to treat the biceps, it can still be a conundrum. The more straightforward tests and reliable evaluation methods we have in our repertoire, the more likely the appropriate treatment choice to address the pathology will be made. The subpectoral biceps test is a helpful examination maneuver as part of the preoperative biceps evaluation.
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