“Postage Stamp” Fractures: A Systematic Review of Patient and Suture Anchor Profiles Causing Anterior Glenoid Rim Fractures After Bankart Repair

      Purpose

      To systematically review patient and technical risk factors for anterior glenoid rim fractures through suture anchor points (i.e. “postage stamp”) after arthroscopic Bankart repair.

      Methods

      An independent, duplicate search of Embase, Medline, and Web of Science databases, in addition to the past 5-year annual meeting abstracts of several prominent shoulder meetings, was conducted according to R-AMSTAR and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines to identify English-language studies reporting this complication.

      Results

      A screen of 2,833 studies yielded 6 for inclusion herein. Data across 43 patients, aged 14 to 61 years (mean 24.4), 5% female, and who were followed for 4 to 108 months postoperatively, were reviewed. Only 1 of 6 studies (n = 2) reported postage stamp fracture in female patients. Median time from initial surgery to fracture ranged from 12 to 24 months. Five of 6 studies (n = 32) reported a median age at initial surgery of 25 years or younger (range 17-35). Four of 6 studies (n = 30) reported fracture mostly after sport involvement. All studies (n = 35) reported initial fixation with a median of 3 anchors or more, 3 of 5 studies (n = 26) reported fracture entirely after conventional knot-tying anchors, and 5 of 6 studies (n = 24) reported more fractures after absorbable suture anchor use. Fractures occurred entirely through anchor holes in 5 of 6 studies (n = 29) and mostly after osteolysis in 3 of 4 studies (n = 19). Management strategies after fracture included revision arthroscopic Bankart repair or open Bristow/Latarjet procedures.

      Conclusion

      Postage stamp fractures were reported frequently in patients who were male, age 25 years or younger, and participants in sporting activities and in fractures initially stabilized with 3 or more anchors or conventional knot-tying anchors or that experienced osteolysis around anchor sites.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, systematic review of level III and IV studies.
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