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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review of Recent Literature

      Purpose

      To critically review recent literature on outcomes following primary surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).

      Methods

      In December 2018, a search of the MEDLINE database was conducted for English language articles reporting clinical outcomes of ACL repair from 2003 to 2018. Included studies were evaluated for patient demographics, patient-reported outcome measures, return to sports/work, patient satisfaction, and postoperative complications. Subgroup analysis was conducted for studies that included patients with only type 1/proximal ACL ruptures.

      Results

      Twenty-eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, comprising 2,401 patients (52.3% male, 35.7% female, 12.0% unspecified gender) with mean age ranging from 6.0 to 43.3 years. Most studies were conducted in Europe (82.1%), were level of evidence IV (60.7%), and were designed as case series (57.1%). Fourteen investigations (50.0%) used primary suture repair and 14 (50.0%) used dynamic intraligamentary stabilization. Preoperative ranges for Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee Score subjective, and Tegner scores were 28 to 100, 94.1 to 100, and 2 to 9, respectively. Postoperative ranges for the same measures were 80 to 100, 54.3 to 98, and 3.67 to 7, respectively. Time to return to sport/work ranged from 3.1 ± 3.3 to 17.4 ± 1.5 weeks. Frequency of rerupture, revision ACL surgery, and overall reoperations were as high as 23.1%, 33.3%, and 51.5%, respectively. Overall ACL repair survivorship ranged from 60.0% to 100.0%. In subgroup analysis for proximal ruptures treated with repair, the rates of revision ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and total reoperations were as high as 12.9% and 18.2%, respectively.

      Conclusions

      Based on our cumulative findings across 2,401 patients from the 28 included studies, it appears that ACLR results in better survivorship and patient-perceived postoperative improvement when compared with ACL repair. At present, ACLR appears to remain the superior treatment strategy in the vast majority of cases.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, systematic review of Level II to IV studies.
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      Linked Article

      • Editorial Commentary: Back to the Past—Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair Revisited
        ArthroscopyVol. 35Issue 7
        • Preview
          There has been increasing scientific interest in primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair in recent years. The results of these procedures have improved significantly compared with the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the overall rerupture rates after ACL repair are worse than after ACL reconstruction, and patient-reported outcome measures do not improve after ACL repair, in contrast to those after ACL reconstruction. However, because primary ACL repair is performed in the acute phase, improvement in patient-reported outcome measures after surgery is not expected.
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