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Variability of the Composition of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Platelet-Rich Plasma From the Knee With Osteoarthritis

  • Chul-Won Ha
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

    Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea

    Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea
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  • Yong-Beom Park
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Yong-Beom Park, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, 102 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06973, South Korea.
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
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  • Jae Won Jang
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yonsei Knee and Spine Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
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  • Manyoung Kim
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Leon Wiltse Memorial Hospital, Suwon, South Korea
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  • Jin-A. Kim
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

    Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea

    Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea
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  • Yong-Geun Park
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju, South Korea
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      Purpose

      To investigate the composition and concentration of growth factors and cytokines in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with knee osteoarthritis and to explore the association of the concentration of growth factors and cytokines with the platelet count of PRPs.

      Methods

      Patients who visited outpatient clinic with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grades 1 to 3) and had no blood dyscrasia were enrolled from October 2014 to March 2015. PRPs were obtained using a commercial system. Concentrations of growth factors and cytokines were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anabolic factors (platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF]-AA, -BB, and -AB, transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], epidermal growth factor [EGF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], and insulin-like growth factor 1), catabolic factors (interleukin [IL]-1β and matrix metalloproteinase 13), and catabolic blockers (IL-1 receptor antagonist) were included. The degree of variation was determined by coefficient of variation (CoV).

      Results

      105 patients were included. Growth factors and cytokines showed wide variation. bFGF showed the highest variation (CoV 78.45), and transforming growth factor-β1 showed the lowest variation (CoV 5.30). Platelet count in PRP showed a positive correlation with PDGF-BB and -AB, and VEGF (r = 0.270, P = .005; r = 0.231, P = .018; and r = 0.200, P = .041, respectively) and was negatively correlated with IL-1β (r = –0.220, P = .025).

      Conclusion

      Growth factors and cytokines in PRPs obtained from patients with knee osteoarthritis show a wide variation; the highest variation was shown in bFGF. Platelet counts associated positively with PDGF-AB and -BB and VEGF and negatively with IL-1β.

      Clinical Relevance

      This information leads to the concept that variation and association of specific factors needs to be taken into consideration for future investigations of PRPs in clinical application in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
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