Original Article| Volume 35, ISSUE 11, P3069-3076, November 2019

Soft Tissue Fixation Strategies of Human Quadriceps Tendon Grafts: A Biomechanical Study


      To evaluate the effects of different stitching methods and suture diameters on the graft fixation of soft tissue human quadriceps tendon grafts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.


      The Krackow locking stitch (K), whipstitch (W), and baseball stitch (B) were combined with either a 2× no. 2 (#2) or a 1× no. 5 (#5) braided composite suture for graft fixation of 36 human quadriceps tendons in 6 groups. Biomechanical testing was performed using a cyclic protocol with loads between 0 and 100 N. The maximum load until failure, cyclic elongation, and failure mode were recorded.


      The highest mean maximum load to failure was observed in the 2 Krackow stitch groups. The K#2 group had significantly higher load to failure values compared with those of the W#2 and B#2 groups (K#2, 553 ± 82 N vs W#2, 392 ± 107 N, P = .0349; K#2 vs B#2 366 ± 118 N, P = .0129). The mean cyclic elongation was lowest in the Krackow groups (K#2, 10.59 ± 2.63 mm; K#5, 13.66 ± 2.3 mm). The regular failure mode was the rupture of the suture for the Krackow stitch (8 of 12) and suture pullout for the whipstitch (11 of 12) and baseball stitch groups (12 of 12).


      The double Krackow stitch with no. 2 braided composite suture exhibits a high maximum load to failure combined with a low amount of elongation in a biomechanical study for human quadriceps tendon soft tissue graft fixation. Unlike the whipstitch and the baseball stitch, it can solidly prevent suture pullout.

      Clinical Relevance

      A safe soft tissue graft fixation technique is especially important for quadriceps tendon grafts with their laminar anatomical structure and physiologically varying diameter. Unlike other grafts for ACL replacement, it fully relies on the soft tissue suture fixation to resist the pullout force.
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