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Editorial Commentary: Arthroscopic Latarjet: An Analysis of Outcomes and Complications Through its Learning Curve

      Abstract

      The arthroscopic Latarjet has been proposed in the past decade to reduce the rate of bone block malpositioning, decrease soft-tissue damage associated with open approach, and possibly decrease intraoperative complications. Several recent studies have reported similar or even superior results with arthroscopic Latarjet compared with those achieved with open technique. However, arthroscopic Latarjet is known to be more technically demanding and some feel that it should be performed by expert shoulder surgeons with advanced arthroscopic skills. Surgical innovations should be adopted when they have potential advantages for patients. Despite the initial challenges and learning curve of arthroscopic Latarjet, experience and technical skills may reduce the rate of intraoperative complications for this technically demanding procedure.
      The Latarjet procedure is considered by some to be the gold standard in the treatment of glenohumeral instability especially in those situations where soft-tissue procedures are at high risk of failure, such as collision athletes, and in patients with severe bone loss. However, there is general concern regarding the potential drawbacks of this operation: intraoperative complications, bone block malpositioning, and development of late arthritis. Recent studies have shown a rate of complications of 21%,
      • Domos P.
      • Lunini E.
      • Ascione F.
      • et al.
      Clinical and radiographic outcomes of open Latarjet procedure in patients aged 40 years or older.
      coracoid bone block malposition of 15.4%,
      • Willemot L.
      • De Boey S.
      • Van Tongel A.
      • Declercq G.
      • De Wilde L.
      • Verborgt O.
      Analysis of failures after the Bristow-Latarjet procedure for recurrent shoulder instability.
      and late arthritic changes in 38.2%.
      • Hurley E.T.
      • Jamal M.S.
      • Ali Z.S.
      • Montgomery C.
      • Pauzenberger L.
      • Mullett H.
      Long-term outcomes of the Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability: A systematic review of studies at 10-year follow-up.
      The arthroscopic Latarjet has been proposed to address these problems and potentially reduce additional soft-tissue damage. Although soft-tissue dissection is reduced by the arthroscopic approach, graft positioning and intraoperative complications are still a source of concern.
      • Kordasiewicz B.
      • Małachowski K.
      • Kiciński M.
      • et al.
      Intraoperative graft-related complications are a risk factor for recurrence in arthroscopic Latarjet stabilization.
      Kordasiewicz et al. reported a correct position of the graft in the axial plane in 40.5% of patients and in the sagittal plane (between 3 and 5 o’clock) in 54.6% of cases.
      Recent data regarding intraoperative complications and revision surgery are variable. Complications range from 4%
      • Xu J.
      • Liu H.
      • Lu W.
      • et al.
      Clinical outcomes and radiologic assessment of a modified suture button arthroscopic Latarjet procedure.
      to 16.5%,
      • Cerciello S.
      • Corona K.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Santagada D.A.
      • Maccauro G.
      Early outcomes and perioperative complications of the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
      and need for revision from 5.4%
      • Hurley E.T.
      • Lim Fat D.
      • Farrington S.K.
      • Mullett H.
      Open versus arthroscopic Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
      to 5.7%.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Corona K.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Santagada D.A.
      • Maccauro G.
      Early outcomes and perioperative complications of the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
      Regarding the rate of late arthritic changes, all of the reported studies only reported intermediate follow-up, which is not sufficient to draw clear conclusions. The 3 available recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure is a valid alternative to open surgery, although it is more technically demanding, requires longer operative time, and should be performed only in high-volume centers by experienced arthroscopists.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Corona K.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Santagada D.A.
      • Maccauro G.
      Early outcomes and perioperative complications of the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
      • Hurley E.T.
      • Lim Fat D.
      • Farrington S.K.
      • Mullett H.
      Open versus arthroscopic Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
      • Horner N.S.
      • Moroz P.A.
      • Bhullar R.
      • et al.
      Open versus arthroscopic Latarjet procedures for the treatment of shoulder instability: A systematic review of comparative studies.
      The technical demands may be overcome with experience because operative time has been shown to significantly decrease with surgical experience and reaches a plateau after 30 cases.
      • Bonnevialle N.
      • Thélu C.E.
      • Bouju Y.
      • et al.
      Arthroscopic Latarjet procedure with double-button fixation: Short-term complications and learning curve analysis.
      This evidence has been recently confirmed by Kordasiewicz, Kiciński, Małachowski, Boszczyk, Chaberek, and Pomianowski
      • Kordasiewicz B.
      • Kiciński M.
      • Małachowski K.
      • Boszczyk A.
      • Chaberek S.
      • Pomianowski S.
      Arthroscopic Latarjet stabilization: Analysis of the learning curve in the first 90 primary cases - early clinical results and computed tomography evaluation.
      in their article, “Arthroscopic Latarjet Stabilization: Analysis of the Learning Curve in the First 90 Primary Cases - Early Clinical Results and Computed Tomography Evaluation.” The article showed a significant decrease in surgical time, frequency of complications, and number of hardware problems after the first 30 cases. Innovation should always be encouraged because it is the seed for improvement and the best way to ensure the appropriate treatment for all our patients. In addition, it should be highlighted that the same technical problems have been similarly described for the open Latarjet.
      • Ekhtiari S.
      • Horner N.S.
      • Bedi A.
      • Ayeni O.R.
      • Khan M.
      The learning curve for the Latarjet procedure: A systematic review.
      Therefore, we should firmly adopt innovations and new surgical techniques when appropriate to achieve the best results, while acknowledging the potential drawbacks and understanding our own technical skills.

      Supplementary Data

      References

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        • Lunini E.
        • Ascione F.
        • et al.
        Clinical and radiographic outcomes of open Latarjet procedure in patients aged 40 years or older.
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        • De Boey S.
        • Van Tongel A.
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        Analysis of failures after the Bristow-Latarjet procedure for recurrent shoulder instability.
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        Long-term outcomes of the Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability: A systematic review of studies at 10-year follow-up.
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        Clinical outcomes and radiologic assessment of a modified suture button arthroscopic Latarjet procedure.
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