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All-Inside Quadrupled Semitendinosus Autograft Shows Stability Equivalent to Patellar Tendon Autograft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Randomized Controlled Trial in Athletes 24 Years or Younger

Published:February 12, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.01.048

      Purpose

      To compare clinical outcomes of knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) autograft reconstruction using all-inside quadrupled semitendinosus (AIST) versus bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) in a high-risk athletic population 24 years or younger.

      Methods

      Skeletally mature candidates younger than 24 years old with an ACL tear were randomized into either the AIST (n = 32) or BPTB (n = 32) group and were followed for 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained at 1-year follow-up, and radiographs were obtained at 2-year follow-up. All surgeries were performed by a single surgeon using an anteromedial portal to establish the femoral tunnel. The primary outcome measure was KT-1000 stability testing. Secondary outcome measures included International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Knee Evaluation Form, IKDC Subjective Form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Marx Activity Scale, visual analog pain scale, and SF-12 (Mental and Physical). Results: At 2-year follow-up, no statistical difference existed with KT-1000-measured side-to-side laxity between AIST (0.3 ± 0.7 mm, 95% confidence interval 0.0-1.0 mm) and BPTB (0.0 ± 0.8 mm, confidence interval CI -0.3 to 1.1 mm) (P = .197). In addition, no statistical differences between the groups were found for IKDC Subjective Form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Marx, SF-12 Mental, SF-12 Physical, or with regards to imaging findings. Patients with BPTB reported significantly greater postoperative pain scores at days 2 (P = .049), 3 (P = .004), and 7 (P = .015) and had significantly greater kneeling pain at 2 years (P < .019). A return to sport questionnaire at 2 years revealed no significant difference between the groups for returning to preoperative level of sport activity (83% AIST, 74% BPTB; P = .415). Two graft retears (7%; P = .222) occurred in the AIST group. Three patients in the BPTB group experienced ACL tears in the contralateral knee (9%; P = .239).

      Conclusions

      ACL reconstruction with an all-inside quadrupled semitendinosus autograft construct is equivalent to patellar BPTB autograft based on KT-1000 stability testing in athletes 24 years or younger.

      Level of Evidence

      randomized controlled trial with 92% 2-year follow-up, Level I.
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