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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of the Anterolateral Ligament and the Iliotibial Band in Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Associated With Segond Fractures

Published:February 13, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.02.005

      Purpose

      To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of Segond fractures, including the structures attached to the avulsed fragment, the integrity of anterolateral ligament (ALL) and iliotibial band (ITB), and fragment size and location.

      Methods

      This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study with MRI scans from 2016 to 2019 with the term “Segond” in the reports, signs of acute trauma, and a bony anterolateral tibial avulsion (Segond) fracture. Two experienced observers accessed images to evaluate fragment dimensions (anteroposterior, mediolateral, and craniocaudal) and distances from anatomic landmarks (Gerdy’s tubercle, articular surface, and posterolateral tibial corner). ALLs and ITBs also were evaluated, both for integrity and for attachment to the avulsed bony fragment. Data were statistically evaluated for significant correlations.

      Results

      Forty-eight knee MRIs of patients suffering from a combined anterior cruciate ligament and Segond injury were evaluated. The ALL presented with edema in 28 cases (58.3%) and was torn in 3 cases (6.3%). The ALL was attached to the bone fragment in all cases and the ITB also was attached in 25 cases (52.1%). Receiver operating characteristic curves also demonstrated that the larger each of the dimensions and the volume of the fragment, the greater the probability of ITB fibers being inserted. Also, the narrower the distance from the fragment to the center of Gerdy’s tubercle, the greater the probability of iliotibial band fibers being attached. Interobserver correlation varied from 0.87 to 0.97 for all measurements.

      Conclusions

      In all combined ACL injuries and Segond fracture MRI cases, the complete ALL inserted on the avulsed bony fragment, whereas the posterior part of the ITB was only attached in 52.1% of the cases. Segond fracture fragment size was predictive for the structures attached to it. The ALL was abnormal in 64.5% of cases and presented a clear discontinuity in 6.3%.

      Level of Evidence

      Case Series, Level IV.
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