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Sulcus Deepening Trochleoplasty and Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction for Patellofemoral Instability: A 2-Year Study

      Purpose

      To evaluate outcome data of patients undergoing DeJour sulcus-deepening trochleoplasty with medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFLR) for high-grade trochlear dysplasia at a single institution in the United States.

      Methods

      A total of 67 patients (76 knees) with severe trochlear dysplasia and recurrent patellar instability were prospectively enrolled and underwent DeJour sulcus-deepening trochleoplasty with MPFLR from 2011 to 2019. Inclusion criteria included recurrent lateral patellar instability following failure of conservative treatment with radiographic evidence of severe trochlear dysplasia (DeJour types B or D). Patients with less than 2-year follow-up were excluded. Radiographic analysis, physical examination, clinical follow-up, patient demographics, and patient-reported outcome measures were obtained for all patients at each visit.

      Results

      Forty patients (44 knees) had complete 2-year or longer follow-up and were included. The majority of patients were female (81.8%) with a mean age of 19.2 years (standard deviation [SD] 6.7; range 13.2-47.0). Follow-up ranged from 2.0 years to 6.8 years (mean 3.6 years, SD 1.35). In total, 45.5% had failed previous surgery for patellar instability. Eight knees developed arthrofibrosis and the overall reoperation rate was 27.3%. No patients had fixation failure and no further surgery was required for instability. The mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee score of 50.8 improved to 79.1 (P < .001), and the mean preoperative Kujala score of 56.4 improved to 86.5 (P < .001). Patients reported high satisfaction rates (mean 9.1 of 10). When applicable, 100% of patients returned to work, whereas 84.8% returned to sport. There was no significant radiographic progression of patellofemoral arthritis at a mean of 2.4 years after surgery (SD 1.7).

      Conclusions

      DeJour sulcus-deepening trochleoplasty combined with MPFLR and used with tibial tubercle osteotomy and lateral release is a reliable and effective treatment for recurrent patellar instability due to severe trochlear dysplasia, even in this group with many revisions of previous procedures.

      Level of Evidence

      IV, case series.
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