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A Cadaveric Study of Cam-Type Femoroacetabular Impingement: Biomechanical Comparison of Contact Pressures Between Cam Morphology, Partial Femoral Osteoplasty, and Complete Femoral Osteoplasty

      Purpose

      To compare the biomechanical properties of the hip joint with an intact femoral cam lesion, partial cam resection, and complete cam resection.

      Methods

      A cadaveric study was performed using 8 hemipelvises with cam-type morphology (alpha angle > 55°) and intact labra. Intra-articular pressure maps were produced for each specimen under the following conditions: (1) native cam morphology (intact), (2) cam morphology with incomplete resection (partial), and (3) cam morphology with complete resection (complete). By use of an open technique, resection of the superior portion of the cam morphology was performed with a 5.5-mm burr to create the partial resection, followed by the inferior portion to create the complete resection. In each condition, 3 biomechanical parameters were obtained: contact pressure, contact area, and peak force within a region of interest. Measurements were performed 3 times in each condition, and the average value was used for statistical analysis. Analysis of variance was used to compare biomechanical parameters between conditions.

      Results

      A statistically significant difference was found between the pre- and post-resection alpha angles (62.2° ± 3.9° vs 40.9° ± 1.4°, P < .001). Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that the normalized average pressure values of hips with complete resection of cam lesions were significantly lower than those of hips with incomplete femoral cam lesions and hips with intact cam morphology (100% vs 93.6% ± 8.3% and 82.6% ± 16.2%, respectively; P < .0001). The percentage reduction of contact pressure in the complete and partial groups was 17.4% and 6.4%, respectively, compared with the intact group. Contact area and peak force showed no statistically significant differences across the 3 conditions (P > .05).

      Conclusions

      Complete cam resection results in significantly lower intra-articular hip contact pressures than incomplete cam resection and native cam morphology in a cadaveric hip model. These observations underscore the importance of ensuring complete resection of femoral cam lesions in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

      Clinical Relevance

      Previous studies have shown that the most common reason for revision hip arthroscopy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome is incomplete femoral cam resection during the index operation. This study shows biomechanical differences associated with partial cam resection compared with the complete cam resection state that may translate to persistent symptoms.
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      Linked Article

      • Erratum
        ArthroscopyVol. 36Issue 10
        • Preview
          In the article “A Cadaveric Study of Cam-Type Femoroacetabular Impingement: Biomechanical Comparison of Contact Pressures Between Cam Morphology, Partial Femoral Osteoplasty, and Complete Femoral Osteoplasty,” published in the September 2020 issue (Arthroscopy 2020;36:2425-2432), the name of author Laura M. Krivicich was misspelled. The article has since been corrected online.
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