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Outcomes of Preoperative Opioid Usage in Hip Arthroscopy: A Comparison With Opioid-Naïve Patients

      Purpose

      To compare postoperative outcomes between opioid-naïve patients and patients with a history of preoperative opioid usage undergoing hip arthroscopy. The secondary purpose is to determine whether preoperative opioid users consumed more oral morphine milligram equivalents than opioid-naïve patients following surgery.

      Methods

      This is a single-center, retrospective analysis comparing outcomes and postoperative opioid usage between patients with and without a history of preoperative opioid use. Inclusion criteria included patients ≥18 years, Tönnis grade 0 or 1, imaging consistent with FAI or labral pathology, and a diagnosis of symptomatic FAI requiring hip arthroscopy. Patient outcomes were compared throughout a 2-year follow-up using the modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, and visual analog scale (VAS).

      Results

      In total, 17 patients were evaluated in each cohort. The mean age of the study cohort and control cohort were 52.0 ± 9.4 years and 51.2 ± 12.2 years, respectively. Female patients were 58.8% (n = 10) of both cohorts. Non-naïve patients had a lower preoperative Nonarthritic Hip Score (P = .05) and a greater VAS at their 6-month and 1-year (P < .001) postoperative visits. Naïve patients reported greater modified Harris Hip Scores 2 years postoperatively (P < .001). The study cohort was prescribed greater levels of oral morphine equivalents at the postoperative 1-year visit (P = .05). Opioid-naïve patients were more likely to reach minimally clinically important difference and patient acceptable symptom state of VAS at a faster rate. At the 2-year follow-up, 11.8% of opioid-naïve patients continued to take opioids compared with 58.8% from the non-naïve group for persistent hip pain (P < .001).

      Conclusions

      We determined that preoperative opioid usage in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy is associated with inferior outcomes compared with opioid-naïve patients. In addition, preoperative opioid users are likely to continue the use of opioid medications postoperatively and at greater doses than opioid-naïve patients.

      Level of Evidence

      3, retrospective comparative study
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