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Anatomic Analysis of the Attachment of the Posteroinferior Labrum and Capsule to the Glenoid: A Cadaveric Study

      Purpose

      To measure the height of the posteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (PIGHL) attachment to the labrum and the depth of the posteroinferior labrum to the glenoid, macroscopically, and to investigate the morphology of the attachment of the posteroinferior labrum to the glenoid, histologically.

      Methods

      Fifty cadaveric shoulders without exposed subchondral bone on the glenoid and detached posterior labrum were used. We examined the frequency of the heights of the PIGHL attachments to the labrum and the length of the labral attachment on the glenoid rim at the 7, 8, 9, and 10 o’clock positions, macroscopically. According to morphology of the histological labral attachments, it was divided into 3 groups. Labra attached on the articular surface and the glenoid neck were defined as the SN type, while labra attached only to the glenoid neck constituted labra attached to the bone and side of the articular cartilage (Nc type) and labra attached only to bone (Nb type).

      Results

      The PIGHL attached from 7 o’clock to 9 o’clock in 48 shoulders (96%). The mean labral attachment at the 7 o’clock position was 6.3 ± 1.0 mm (range, 4.6-9.4 mm), which was significantly longer than at the other positions (P < .05). Histologically, the frequency of SN type attachment was 49 (98%) shoulders at the 7 o’clock position.

      Conclusions

      The PIGHL attached between 7 and 9 o’clock in 96% of the shoulders. In 98% of the shoulders, the labrum did not attach to the articular surface, but attached to both the articular cartilage and the bone of the glenoid neck at 7 o’clock.

      Clinical Relevance

      The posteroinferior labrum should be repaired widely at the 7 o'clock position and not on the articular surface because the labrum attached anatomically to the glenoid neck.
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