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Topographic Analysis of Lateral Versus Medial Femoral Condyle Donor Sites for Oblong Medial Femoral Condyle Lesions

      Purpose

      To analyze the topographic matching of oblong osteochondral allografts to treat large oval medial femoral condyle (MFC) lesions using computer simulation models. The secondary objective was to determine whether lateral femoral condyle (LFC) grafts would have a similar surface matching when compared with MFC grafts in this setting.

      Methods

      Human femoral hemicondyles (10 MFCs, 7 LFCs) underwent 3-dimensional computed tomography. Models were created from computed tomography images and exported into point-cloud models. Donor–recipient matches with large condylar width mismatch were excluded. The remaining specimen were divided into 3 donor–recipient groups with 2 defect sizes (17 × 30 mm and 20 × 30 mm): 20 MFC donor (MFCd)–MFC recipient (MFCr), 27 ipsilateral LFC donor (LFCd)–MFCr, and 26 contralateral LFCd–MFCr. Grafts were optimally virtually aligned with the MFCr defect. Mismatch of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone surfaces between the graft and the defect and articular step-off were calculated.

      Results

      MFCd grafts resulted in articular cartilage surface mismatch and peripheral step of less than 0.5 mm for both defect sizes. The subchondral bone surface mismatch was significantly greater than the articular cartilage surface mismatch (P < .01) in both defect sizes). Conversely, the ipsilateral and contralateral LFCd grafts resulted in significantly greater articular cartilage surface mismatch and step-off for both defect sizes when compared to MFCd grafts (P < .01).

      Conclusions

      Oblong MFC allografts provide acceptable topographic matching for large oval MFC lesions when condylar width differences are minimized. However, concern exists in using oblong LFC allografts for MFC defects, as this can result in increased peripheral step-off and surface mismatch.

      Clinical Relevance

      These data reinforce the ability to use oblong MFC osteochondral allograft for treating oval cartilage lesions of the MFC when condylar width is considered. Although other studies have demonstrated LFCs can be used to treat circular defects on the MFC, this may not be true for oblong grafts.
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