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All-Inside Arthroscopic Modified Broström Technique to Repair Anterior Talofibular Ligament Provides a Similar Outcome Compared With Open Broström-Gould Procedure

  • Yun-Feng Zhou
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
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  • Zheng-Zheng Zhang
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
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  • Hao-Zhi Zhang
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
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  • Wei-Ping Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
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  • Hui-Yong Shen
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Bin Song, M.D., Ph.D., and Hui-Yong Shen, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang West Road, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China.
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China

    Department of Orthopedics, the 8th Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
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  • Bin Song
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Bin Song, M.D., Ph.D., and Hui-Yong Shen, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang West Road, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China.
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
    Search for articles by this author
Published:September 06, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.08.030

      Abstract

      Purpose

      To introduce an all-inside modified Broström technique to suture the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) under arthroscopy and to compare its outcomes with those of the conventional open procedure.

      Methods

      All patients who underwent arthroscopic or open repair of the ATFL between June 2014 and December 2017 were included in this study. Visual analog scale (VAS), Karlsson and Peterson (K-P), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle/hindfoot, and Tegner activity scores, as well as manual anterior drawer test (ADT), were used to evaluate the patients preoperatively and ≥2 years after surgery. The Sefton grading system was used to assess the level of satisfaction after surgery. Detailed surgical data and intraoperative findings were documented at the time of surgery.

      Results

      A total of 67 patients, 31 in the arthroscopic group and 36 in the open group, were included in this study (43 men and 24 women, mean body mass index 24.00, range 19.53 to 30.03). The surgical duration in the arthroscopic group (median, 34 minutes; range, 25 to 74) was significantly shorter than that in the open group (mean, 43.08 ± 8.11 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI] 40.34 to 45.83) (P = .007). At the last follow-up, the subjective functional scores and ADT results improved significantly in both cohorts (P < .001). However, no significant difference was found in the VAS score (1.74 ± 1.24, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.2, in the open group versus 1.58 ± 1.2, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.99, in the arthroscopic group; P = .581), AOFAS score (91.71 ± 5.46, 95% CI 89.71 to 93.71, versus 90.67 ± 5.59, 95% CI 88.78 to 92.56; P = .444), K-P score (87.52 ± 7.59, 95% CI 84.73 to 90.3, versus 88.75 ± 5.56, 95% CI 86.87 to 90.63; P = .446), and ADT evaluation (normal: 96.77% versus 94.44%, P = .557) between the arthroscopic and open groups, respectively. In addition, 28 cases (90.32%) in the arthroscopic group and 32 (88.89%) in the open group achieved satisfactory results based on the Sefton grading system (P = .736). Seventeen patients (47.2%) in the open group and 18 patients (58.1%) in the arthroscopic group underwent Tegner evaluation after surgery, which showed no significant difference (5, interquartile range [IQR] 1 in the open group versus 5, IQR 3 in the arthroscopic group; P = .883). Complications were reported in 4 (11.1%) and 2 (6.5%) patients who underwent open and arthroscopic surgeries, respectively (P = .813).

      Conclusions

      Both open and arthroscopic modified Broström surgeries generated favorable outcomes, with a significant improvement compared with the preoperative condition. Compared with the open Broström-Gould procedure, the all-inside arthroscopic modified Broström technique produced equivalent functional and clinical results at a minimum of 2 years after the operation, with a shorter surgical duration. Arthroscopic repair might be a safe and viable alternative to open surgery for lateral ankle stabilization.

      Level of Evidence

      III.
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