Original Article| Volume 37, ISSUE 3, P862-870, March 2021

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Volume of Gluteus Maximus and Minimus Increases After Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome

Published:January 29, 2021DOI:


      To investigate the change in muscle volume around the hip in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) after arthroscopy and evaluate other factors related to muscle change.


      We performed a retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging data of patients with FAI who underwent hip arthroscopy. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained pre- and postoperatively. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscles were determined on axial images. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine the differences between pre- and postoperative hip muscle CSA. The correlations of change in muscle CSA with age, sex, body mass index, pain level, preoperative symptom duration, follow-up time, and multiple validated patient-reported outcomes were also analyzed with a Spearman rank correlation test.


      Fifty-one patients with a mean age of 36.5 ± 5.6 years were included and analyzed. The follow-up was 26.6 ± 0.5 months (range, 24-40 months), and 27 (52.9%) were women. Patients with FAI showed increased hip muscle CSA of gluteus maximus (P = .002) and gluteus minimus (P = .001). Post- compared with preoperative, the value for the change in medius CSA was underpowered, and no differences in other hip muscle CSAs were observed. The increased muscle CSA of the gluteus maximus was significantly correlated with the improvement of modified Harris Hip Score (ρ = 0.404; P = .003). The increased muscle CSA of the gluteus minimus was significantly correlated with the improvement of pain Visual Analog Scale (ρ = 0.452; P = .001). Age, body mass index, sex, symptom duration, and follow-up time were not significantly correlated with change in muscle CSA.


      Patients with FAI have a significantly increased postoperative muscle CSA of the gluteus maximus (7.8%) and the gluteus minimus (11.6%) compared with preoperative values. The increased muscle CSA of the gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus was significantly correlated with improvement in modified Harris Hip Score and pain Visual Analog Scale, respectively. The increase of muscle volume may be associated with the improvement of subjective function and pain relief.

      Levels of Evidence

      Level IV, therapeutic case series.
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