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Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with the All-Soft Tissue Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Has Acceptable Early and Intermediate-Term Outcomes

      Purpose

      The purposes were to (1) examine early to intermediate-term clinical outcomes and complications of revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using all-soft tissue quadriceps tendon (QT) autografts, and (2) compare quadriceps strength between patients who had hamstring versus patella tendon autografts in their previous reconstruction.

      Methods

      One hundred patients (52 males/48 females; 22.6 ± 8.0 years) undergoing revision ACLR with all-soft tissue QT autografts were prospectively followed. All revision procedures were performed by a single surgeon, using a minimally invasive graft harvest technique and suspensory fixation. Subjective assessment of knee function was obtained before and after surgery with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) survey. Postoperative knee laxity and isokinetic quadriceps strength were collected at regular intervals. Strength was reported as limb symmetry index (LSI; surgical side divided by nonsurgical side). Complications including hematomas, postoperative loss of knee extension, and graft failures were recorded. To determine clinical significance (P ≤ .05), outcomes were compared using analysis of variance or paired samples t-tests.

      Results

      The mean IKDC scores significantly improved (54.3 ± 13.0 vs 82.8 ± 13.8), with an average follow-up of 42.2 ± 21.2 months. There were no significant changes in knee laxity side-to-side differences: 6 weeks (1.2 ± 1.5 mm), 3 months (1.2 ± 1.8 mm), 6 months (1.4 ± 1.6 mm). Quadriceps LSIs significantly improved from 71.6% ± 19.3% at 6 months to 81.5% ± 19.3% at 12 months for 60°/s isokinetic testing and 76.6% ± 16.4% at 6 months to 83.9% ± 16.9% at 12 months for 180°/s testing. Graft harvest site hematomas developed in 2 patients, postoperative loss of knee extension in 4 patients, and graft failure in 11 patients. No significant differences in quadriceps or hamstrings LSIs were noted between patients with previous hamstring versus patella tendon autografts (P > .050).

      Conclusion

      Revision ACLR with all-soft tissue QT autografts has acceptable early and intermediate-term outcomes with reasonable complication rates (11/80 patients with follow-up). Secondary insult to the extensor mechanism via QT autograft harvest does not adversely affect strength after prior patellar tendon versus hamstring autograft.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, cases series subgroup analysis.
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