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Unstable Lateral Hinge Fracture or Occult Complete Osteotomy Adversely Affects Correction Accuracy in Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

      Purpose

      To verify whether lateral hinge fracture (LHF) affects correction accuracy in open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) and to identify the fracture characteristics responsible for inaccurate correction, including LHF type and hinge location.

      Methods

      Patients undergoing OWHTO with locking plate fixation between 2010 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who did not have a minimum 2-year of follow-up or postoperative long-standing hip-to-ankle radiographs were excluded. Correction accuracy was assessed using the weight-bearing line ratio: 57% to 67%, planned correction; 50% to 70%, acceptable correction; otherwise, inappropriate correction. The association between LHF and correction accuracy was assessed using the χ2 test. To identify the fracture characteristics responsible for inaccurate correction, LHF type (stable type 1 and unstable types 2 and 3) and hinge location (shallow osteotomy, deep osteotomy, and occult complete osteotomy) were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression analysis, taking other related demographic and radiologic factors into account. Clinical outcomes according to LHF type were evaluated using the Hospital for Special Surgery scores.

      Results

      A total of 148 cases were included; 41 (27.7%) showed LHF: type 1, 32 cases; type 2, 7 cases; and type 3, 2 cases. Planned, acceptable, and inappropriate corrections were noted in 63 (42.6%), 36 (24.3%), and 48 (32.4%) cases, respectively. LHF had a significant association with correction accuracy (P = .010). Regarding fracture characteristics, unstable LHF and occult complete osteotomy were significant risk factors (P = .016 and P = .004, respectively). Specifically in cases of stable LHF, occult complete osteotomy adversely affected correction accuracy (P = .025). No difference was found in the final Hospital for Special Surgery scores according to LHF type (P = .816).

      Conclusions

      LHF affected the accuracy of coronal alignment correction in OWHTO. Unstable LHF or occult complete osteotomy were risk factors for inaccurate correction. Even among stable LHFs, those with occult complete osteotomy could lead to inaccurate correction.

      Level of Evidence

      Level III, retrospective cohort study.
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