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A National Perspective of Patellar Instability in Children and Adolescents in the United States: MPFL Reconstruction Is Three Times Higher Than the Incidence of Isolated Lateral Release

      Purpose

      The objective was to (1) evaluate any recent changes in the United States in the incidences of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction and isolated lateral release for patellar instability in children and adolescents, (2) identify concomitant procedures with MPFL, and (3) report national complication rates after MPFL reconstruction with and without concomitant procedures in children and adolescents.

      Methods

      A national database was queried for patients aged 5 to 18 years who underwent operative treatment for patellar instability from 2010 to 2018. Inclusion criteria were either an MPFL reconstruction or lateral release for a diagnosis of patellar instability. Concomitant procedures with MPFL reconstruction assessed were tibial tubercle osteotomy, associated arthroscopic procedures, and lateral release. Changes in incidence in MPFL reconstruction, lateral release and concomitant procedures were assessed. The following postoperative complications were assessed: knee stiffness, infection, patella fracture, and growth arrest or angular deformity.

      Results

      2,161 patients who underwent MPFL reconstruction and 1,159 patients who underwent isolated lateral release for patellar instability were identified. The incidence of MPFL reconstruction in adolescents from 2010 to 2018 did not change significantly (2010: 7.11, 2018: 5.91, P = .137), while isolated lateral release decreased (2010: 6.06, 2018: 1.83, P < .0001). Concomitant procedures with MPFL reconstruction were common, with arthroscopy being the most frequent (58-67%). The most common complication within 90 days of surgery was patella fracture (0.4% to 2.0%). Infection (0.4% to 1.0%) and growth arrest (0.09% to 0.61%) were the least common. MPFL and arthroscopy had a decreased risk of growth arrest following surgery compared to MPFL alone (P = .038).

      Conclusions

      The incidence of MPFL reconstruction remained high from 2010 to 2018, while isolated lateral release decreased during the same time period. Complications after MPFL reconstruction, isolated lateral release, and concomitant procedures were infrequent, with postoperative patella fracture the most common.

      Level of Evidence

      IV, case series
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