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Multimodal Nonopioid Pain Protocol Provides Better or Equivalent Pain Control Compared to Opioid Analgesia Following Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Published:November 25, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.11.028

      Purpose

      To evaluate the efficacy of a multimodal nonopioid analgesic protocol in controlling postoperative pain compared to opioids following a primary arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

      Methods

      Seventy consecutive patients undergoing a primary rotator cuff repair were assessed for eligibility. An observer-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial was designed in accordance with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 (CONSORT) statement. The two arms of the study included a multimodal nonopioid pain regimen for the experimental group, and a standard of care narcotics for the control group. The primary outcome was visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores for the first 10 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes included PROMIS-PI (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Pain Interference) scale, patient satisfaction, and adverse drug events.

      Results

      Thirty patients declined to participate or were excluded, and 40 patients were included in the final analysis. A total of 23 patients were in the traditional group, and 17 patients were in the nonopioid group. Control patients on opioid pain management reported a significantly higher VAS pain score on postoperative day 1 (opioid: 5.7 ± 2, nonopioid: 3.7 ± 2.2; P = .011) and postoperative day 4 (opioid: 4.4 ± 2.7, nonopioid: 2.4 ± 2.2; P = .023). No significant difference was seen on any other postoperative day. When mixed measured models were used to control for confounding factors, the nonopioid group demonstrated significantly lower VAS and PROMIS-PI scores (P < .01) at every time point. Patients in the traditional analgesia group reported significantly more days with constipation (P = .003) and days with upset stomach (P = .020) than those in the nonopioid group.

      Concussion

      The present study found that a multimodal nonopioid pain protocol provided equivalent or better pain control compared to traditional opioid analgesics in patients undergoing primary arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Minimal side effects were noted with some improvement in the multimodal nonopioid pain cohort. All patients reported satisfaction with their pain management.

      Level of Evidence

      Level I, prospective randomized controlled trial.

      Key Words

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