Posterior Tibial Slope, Notch Width, Condylar Morphology, Trochlear Inclination, and Tibiofemoral Mismatch Predict Outcomes Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Published:December 15, 2021DOI:


      To provide a comprehensive summary of the available literature on the influence of bone morphology on outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).


      Our protocol was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) and followed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. The PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE databases were searched for studies investigating knee morphologic features and outcomes after ACLR. Articles were screened and references lists were reviewed to identify relevant studies, after which methodologic quality was assessed for each study included in this review. Because of significant variability in terminology and methodology between studies, no meta-analyses were conducted.


      Systematically screening a total of 19,647 studies identified from the search revealed 24 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among tibial shape features identified as predictors of poor outcomes after ACLR, increased posterior tibial slope was most common (16 studies). Other features such as increased tibial plateau area (1 study), decreased medial plateau width (1 study), and increased medial plateau height (1 study) were also associated with poor outcomes. For the femur, features related to notch width and condylar morphology were most common (4 studies and 7 studies, respectively). An increased condylar offset ratio, increased lateral femoral condylar ratio, and larger notch width were each found to be associated with negative ACLR outcomes, including increased cartilage degeneration, worse patient-reported outcomes, and graft failure.


      Posterior tibial slope, notch width, condylar morphology, trochlear inclination, and tibiofemoral mismatch are associated with and predictive of outcomes after ACLR.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, systematic review of Level II-IV studies.
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