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- A meta-analysis of the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears as a function of gender, sport, and a knee injury-reduction regimen.Arthroscopy. 2007; 23: 1320-1325.e6
- Biological augmentation of graft healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Bone Joint J. 2018; 100-B: 271-284
- A comprehensive review of stem-cell therapy.JBJS Rev. 2017; 5: e15
- Basic science of anterior cruciate ligament injury and repair.Bone Joint Res. 2014; 3: 20-31
- Biology of anterior cruciate ligament injury and repair: Kappa Delta Ann Doner Vaughn Award Paper 2013.J Orthop Res. 2013; 31: 1501-1506
- The "ligamentization" process in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: What happens to the human graft? A systematic review of the literature.Am J Sports Med. 2011; 39: 2476-2483
- Biology of autograft and allograft healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Clin Sports Med. 2007; 26: 509-524
- Histological findings of tendon-bone healing following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring grafts.Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2003; 123: 158-163
- Systematic review of biological modulation of healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Orthop J Sports Med. 2014; 2 (2325967114526687)
- The use of PRP in ligament and meniscal healing.Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2013; 21: 206-212
- Ortho-biologics for ligament repair and reconstruction.Clin Sports Med. 2019; 38: 97-107
- Biologic approaches for the treatment of partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament: A current concepts review.Orthop J Sports Med. 2017; 5 (2325967116681724)
- Biologic agents for anterior cruciate ligament healing: A systematic review.World J Orthop. 2016; 7: 592-603
- Is there a role for internal bracing and repair of the anterior cruciate ligament? A systematic literature review.Am J Sports Med. 2018; 46: 2291-2298
- Anterior cruciate ligament repair and biologic innovations.JBJS Rev. 2017; 5: e2
- Biological augmentation of ACL repair and reconstruction: Current status and future perspective.Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2020; 28: 49-55
Kon E, Di Matteo B, Altomare D, et al. Biologic agents to optimize outcomes following ACL repair and reconstruction: A systematic review of clinical evidence [published online Feb 15, 2021]. J Orthop Res. https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.2501.
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- Direct to consumer advertising of stem cell clinics: Ethical considerations and recommendations for the health-care community.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2019; 101: e103
- Online direct-to-consumer advertising of stem cell therapy for musculoskeletal injury and disease: Misinformation and violation of ethical and legal advertising parameters.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020; 102: 2-9
- Mesenchymal stem cells: The past, the present, the future.Cartilage. 2010; 1: 6-9
- Efficacy and safety of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of a rabbit model: New strategy to enhance tendon graft healing.Arthroscopy. 2015; 31: 1530-1539
- Acceleration of tendon-bone healing of anterior cruciate ligament graft using autologous ruptured tissue.Am J Sports Med. 2012; 40: 1296-1302
- Tendon graft revitalization using adult anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-derived CD34+ cell sheets for ACL reconstruction.Biomaterials. 2013; 34: 5476-5487
- Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stromal cells in partially torn anterior cruciate ligaments in a rat model.Arthroscopy. 2007; 23: 610-617
- Enhancement of tendon graft osteointegration using mesenchymal stem cells in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Arthroscopy. 2004; 20: 899-910
- An analysis of soft tissue allograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a rabbit model: A short-term study of the use of mesenchymal stem cells to enhance tendon osteointegration.Am J Sports Med. 2007; 35: 962-971
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- The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials.BMJ. 2011; 343: d5928
- Evaluation of the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials: Focus groups, online survey, proposed recommendations and their implementation.Syst Rev. 2014; 3: 37
- RoB 2: A revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials.BMJ. 2019; 366: l4898
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- Studies of surgical outcome after patellar tendinopathy: Clinical significance of methodological deficiencies and guidelines for future studies.Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2000; 10: 2-11
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- The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: Explanation and elaboration.Ann Intern Med. 2001; 134: 663-694
- Levels of evidence and your therapeutic study: What's the difference with cohorts, controls, and cases?.Arthroscopy. 2004; 20: 563
- Is there a role for adult non-cultivated bone marrow stem cells in ACL reconstruction?.Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014; 22: 66-71
- Safety, tolerability, clinical, and joint structural outcomes of a single intra-articular injection of allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells in patients following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A controlled double-blind randomised trial.Arthritis Res Ther. 2017; 19: 180
- Biological augmentation of ACL refixation in partial lesions in a group of athletes: Results at the 5-year follow-up.Tech Orthop. 2013; 28: 180-184
- Effects of autologous adipose-derived regenerative stem cells administered at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on knee function and graft healing.J Orthop Surg. 2019; 27 (2309499019867580)
- Risk-of-bias VISualization (robvis): An R package and shiny web application for visualising risk-of-bias assessments.Res Synth Methods. 2019; 12: 55-61
- Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 to enhance tendon healing in a bone tunnel.Am J Sports Med. 1999; 27: 476-488
- Current evidence of adult stem cells to enhance anterior cruciate ligament treatment: A systematic review of animal trials.Arthroscopy. 2018; 34: 331-340.e2
- Editorial Commentary: Adult stem cell potential to enhance healing of the anterior cruciate ligament.Arthroscopy. 2018; 34: 341-342
- Reporting of mesenchymal stem cell preparation protocols and composition: A systematic review of the clinical orthopaedic literature.Am J Sports Med. 2019; 47: 991-1000
- Minimum information for studies evaluating biologics in orthopaedics (MIBO): Platelet-rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017; 99: 809-819
- Mesenchymal stem cells in BTB allograft ACL reconstruction: A prospective randomized controlled trial.Arthroscopy. 2021; 37 (suppl, abstr): e64-e65
Rush University Medical Center. Biologic Augmentation With Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (BMAC). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04650568. Updated January 5, 2022. Accessed February 11, 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04650568.
Steadman Philippon Research Institute. Prospective Evaluation of PRP and BMC Treatment to Accelerate Healing After ACL Reconstruction. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT04205656. Updated December 23, 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04205656. Accessed February 11, 2020.
Mesoblast Ltd. A randomised, double-blind, comparator study to assess the safety & tolerability of a single injection into the knee joint of MSB-CAR001 when combined with Hyaluronan compared to Hyaluronan alone in patients who have recently undergone an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry identifier: ACTRN12609001018202. Updated March 20, 2019. https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12609001018202. Accessed February 11, 2020.
Samsung Medical Center. Development of Novel Strategy for Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury Using Stem Cell. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02755376. Updated April 10, 2019. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02755376. Accessed February 11, 2020.
Andrews Research & Education Foundation. Bio ACL Reconstruction Amnion Collagen Matrix Wrap and Stem Cells (Bio ACL RCT). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03294759. Updated January 22, 2021. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03294759. Accessed February 11, 2020.
Marshall University. The Effect of Fertilized ACL Technique on Outcomes of ACL Reconstruction in Young Adults (FACL). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04178538. Updated November 4, 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04178538. Accessed February 11, 2020.
- Poster 186: Full thickness anterior cruciate ligament repair with autologous stem cell therapy.PM R. 2018; 10: S63
- Randomized double-blind study of a single intra-articular injection of allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells + hyaluronan compared to hyaluronan alone to explore clinical and structural outcomes in patients post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016; 24 (abstr): S15
The authors report the following potential conflicts of interest or sources of funding: A.A. receives consulting fees from Arthrex and Bioventus; receives speaking fees from Arthrex and Smith & Nephew; receives educational and research support from Arthrex and CGG Medical; and receives royalties from Arthrex . J.A. is a board member of Fast Health and Select Medical; is a consultant for Theralase, Bauerfiend, and Physiotherapy Associates/Select Medical; receives payment for lectures including service on speakers bureaus from Arthrex; owns stock or stock options in Contessa Health, Fast Health, Patient Connection, and Connective Orthopaedics; and receives payments for services other than consulting from Arthrex , outside the submitted work. S.J. receives grants or has grants pending from Arthrex; receives payment for development of educational presentations from Arthrex; receives travel/accommodations/meeting expenses from Arthrex; and receives payments for services other than consulting from CGG Medical and Arthrex , outside the submitted work. Full ICMJE author disclosure forms are available for this article online, as supplementary material.