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Surgical Treatment of Acetabular Dysplasia With Labral Tears

      Abstract: Acetabular dysplasia results in abnormal forces across the hip joint and can result in both labral tears and cartilage degeneration. A continuum exists from classic dysplasia to normal acetabular morphology. Diagnosis is aided by several radiographic measurements and parameters including a lateral center edge angle of less than 20°, an anterior center edge angle of less than 20°, a Sharp’s angle of greater than 42°, and a Tonnis angle of greater than 10°, or version abnormalities. When patients with acetabular dysplasia present with intra-articular hip pain, skeletal maturity, and preserved radiographic joint space, a periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is considered as a surgical treatment option when conservative measures have failed. The Bernese PAO was developed in 1984 as a way for reorienting the acetabulum to restore more normal femoral head coverage and orientation. The long-term results of this procedure have been promising with 10-year and 20-year survivorships of approximately 85% and 60%, respectively. When dysplasia is coupled with a labral tear or other intra-articular pathology including focal chondral damage, ligamentum teres tears, or capsular defects, hip arthroscopy and PAO are performed. Although there is a paucity in the literature of the long-term evidence for the combined procedure, early results indicate improved patient reported outcome measures. Appropriate treatment of borderline hip dysplasia remains controversial.
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