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Hip–Spine Syndrome in the Nonarthritic Patient

      Abstract

      Hip–spine syndrome refers to concurrent hip and spine pathology with overlapping symptoms. Most of the literature has studied it in relation to total hip arthroplasty literature and has been shown to increase dislocation risk. Lumbar spine and pelvic mobility have been studied less frequently in relation to nonarthritic pathologic hip states. Understanding the biomechanical relationship between the lumbar spine, pelvis, and hip can help elucidate how hip–spine syndrome affects the nonarthritic hip and how it impacts outcomes of hip arthroscopy. Changes in lumbar spine motion may be the reason certain predisposed patients develop symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or ischiofemoral impingement. Some athletes may be “hip users” with a low pelvic incidence, making them more reliant on hip motion due to less-intrinsic lumbopelvic motion. When these patients have FAI morphology, their increased reliance on hip motion makes them prone to experiencing femoroacetabular contact and concurrent symptoms. Other athletes may be “spine users,” with larger pelvic incidence and more baseline lumbopelvic motion, making them less reliant on hip motion and therefore less prone to experiencing hip impingement even with hip FAI morphology. Hip–spine syndrome also appears to have an impact on patient selection, role of nonoperative treatment, and hip arthroscopy surgical outcomes. Identifying patients with concurrent pathology may allow surgeons to recommend targeted physical therapy or counsel patients better on their expectations after surgery.
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