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Increased Risk of Concomitant Meniscal Injuries in Adolescents With Elevated Body Mass Index After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear: A Systematic Review

  • Ashley Cheuk Hei Ang
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
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  • Doris Wong
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
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  • Pauline Po Yee Lui
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Pauline Po Yee Lui, Ph.D., Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Room 74037, 5/F Lui Che Woo Clinical Sciences Building, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

    Center for Neuromusculoskeletal Restorative Medicine, Hong Kong SAR, China
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      Purpose

      To investigate existing studies examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in adolescent patients.

      Methods

      A literature search was conducted on PubMed and Embase. Studies examining associations between BMI and outcomes after ACLR in adolescents were included. Quality assessment was performed. Data on patient age, sex, study design, time of follow-up, sample size, graft type, concomitant injuries (meniscal injury, surgical procedures), clinical outcomes (revision ACLR, postoperative weight gain, post-traumatic osteoarthritis [PTOA], range of motion [ROM]), and functional outcome (muscle strength) were extracted.

      Results

      Eleven papers of Levels II-IV evidence were included. Five studies found positive correlations between BMI and risk of concomitant meniscal injuries. Two of them reported young patients with elevated BMI having 1.6 times greater odds of requiring meniscectomy (P < .01) and 1.031 times greater odds of requiring concomitant surgeries (P = .011). One study showed significant positive association of postoperative weight gain by time (r = 0.28, P < .01), with smaller increase in the overweight and obese groups compared with the normal-weight group. One study demonstrated greater cartilage breakdown in young patients with overweight and obesity postsurgery, contributing to PTOA (r = 0.42, P = .009). There was no clinically important difference in postoperative ROM and muscle strength. Four studies reviewed the association between BMI and revision ACLR risk, but results were heterogeneous and a firm conclusion cannot be drawn.

      Conclusions

      Adolescents with elevated BMI are more likely to have concomitant meniscal injuries and surgical procedures after ACL tear. There is some weak evidence of the association of elevated BMI with PTOA and slight postoperative weight gain post-ACLR. There may not be any clinically significant association of obesity with post-operative muscle strength and ROM, and current studies are inconclusive regarding the impact of BMI on revision ACLR risk.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, systematic review of Level II-IV studies.
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