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All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

      Abstract

      Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed knee operations. An “all-inside” technique creates bone sockets for ACL graft passage, as opposed to more traditional full bone tunnels, and typically incorporates suspensory fixation instead of screw fixation to secure the graft. This technique may be indicated for any ACL reconstruction surgery, where adequate bone stock exists to drill sockets and to use cortical fixation. The technique may be used with all soft tissue, as well as bone plug ACL grafts and autograft hamstring or quadriceps tendon; most allograft tendon options may be performed with an all-inside technique. Advantages include anatomic tunnel/socket placement, decreased postoperative pain and swelling, minimal hardware, appropriate graft tensioning and retensioning, and circumferential graft to bone healing. Tips for successful all-inside surgery include matching graft diameter to socket diameter, drilling appropriate length sockets based on individual graft length, so as not to “bottom out” the graft and confirming cortical button fixation intraoperatively. Potential complications include graft-socket mismatch, full-tunnel reaming, and loss of cortical fixation. Multiple studies have shown the all-inside technique to have similar or superior biomechanical properties and clinical outcomes compared to the more traditional full-tunnel ACL reconstruction techniques.
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