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Concomitant Meniscotibial Ligament Reconstruction Decreases Meniscal Extrusion Following Medial Meniscus Allograft Transplantation: A Cadaveric Analysis

      Purpose

      To compare meniscal extrusion (ME) following medial meniscus allograft transplantation (MMAT) with and without meniscotibial ligament reconstruction (MTLR).

      Methods

      Ten cadaveric knees were size-matched with meniscus allografts. MMAT was performed via bridge-in-slot technique. Specimens were mounted in a testing system and ME was assessed via ultrasound anterior, directly over, and posterior to the medial collateral ligament at the joint line under 4 testing conditions: (1) 0° flexion and 0 newtons (N) of axial load, (2) 0° and 1,000 N, (3) 30° and 0 N, and (4) 30° and 1,000 N. For each condition, “mean total extrusion” was calculated by averaging measurements at each position. Next, MTLR was performed using 2 inside-out sutures through the remnant allograft meniscotibial ligament and secured to the tibia using anchors. The testing protocol was repeated. Differences in ME between MMAT alone versus MMAT + MTLR were examined. Within-group differences between the measurement positions, loading states, and flexion angles also were assessed.

      Results

      “Mean total extrusion” was greater following MMAT alone (2.56 ± 1.23 mm) versus MMAT + MTLR (2.14 ± 1.07 mm; P = .005) in the loaded state at 0° flexion. ME directly over the MCL was greater following MMAT alone (3.51 ± 1.00 mm) compared with MMAT + MTLR (2.93 ± 0.79 mm; P = .054). Posteriorly, in the loaded state at 0°, ME was greater following MMAT alone (2.43 ± 1.10 mm) compared with MMAT + MTLR (1.96 ± 0.99 mm; P = .010). In all conditions, ME was greater in the loaded state versus the unloaded state.

      Conclusions

      Following MMAT, the addition of MTLR significantly reduced overall ME when compared with isolated MMAT during loading at 0° of flexion in a cadaveric model; given the small absolute values of change in extrusion, clinical significance cannot be gleaned from these findings.

      Clinical Relevance

      During medial meniscus allograft transplantation, augmentation with meniscotibial ligament reconstruction may limit meniscal extrusion and improve the biomechanical milieu of the knee joint following transplant.
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