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Arthroscopic Anatomical Double-Bundle Medial Patellofemoral Complex Reconstruction Improves Clinical Outcomes in Treating Recurrent Patellar Dislocation Despite Trochlear Dysplasia, Elevated Tibial Tubercle–Trochlear Groove Distance, and Patellar Alta

      Purpose

      To evaluate the clinical outcomes of arthroscopically assisted double-bundle medial patellofemoral complex reconstruction (MPFC-R).

      Methods

      A retrospective review was carried out among adult patients who experienced at least 2 patellar dislocations and underwent primary arthroscopically assisted MPFC-R between January 2014 and November 2019. Dejour classification, tibial tubercle–trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, and patellar height (with Insall–Salvati index) were measured. Pre- and postoperative patellar tilt were compared. Information on outcome scores, ability to return to sports, postoperative recurrent dislocations, and complications was recorded.

      Results

      A total of 42 MPFC-Rs in 39 patients were included. Mean age at surgery was 22.2 ± 7.6 years; 69.2% of patients were female. Mean follow-up was 47.3 ± 20.2 months. Seventy-four percent of cases had Dejour B (19.0%), C (33.3%), and D (21.4%) trochlear dysplasia; mean TT-TG distance was 19.6 ± 3.5 mm, and mean Insall–Salvati index was 1.21 ± 0.17. Mean patellar tilt decreased from 27.6 ± 11.6° to 9.4 ± 6.5° (P < .001). All patients had statistically significant (P < .001) improvement in mean International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) (44.9 ± 18.2 to 87.5 ± 6.9), Lysholm (61.4 ± 16.6 to 94.1 ± 6.4), Kujala (56.0 ± 16.8 to 92.9 ± 5.3), and Tegner score (2.7 ± 1.3 to 4.6 ± 1.4). The majority of patients (96.9%) returned to sports, with 90.3% returning to the same or greater level of activity. No postoperative dislocations or subluxations were reported.

      Conclusions

      Arthroscopically assisted double-bundle MPFC-R is a promising procedure to treat recurrent patellar instability at 2- to 7-year mid-term follow-up, despite the presence of trochlear dysplasia, elevated TT-TG distance and patellar alta. The improvement of IKDC score exceeded the minimal clinically important difference in 95.2% patients, and 66.7% surpassed the patient acceptable symptomatic state based on postoperative IKDC score with no redislocations being reported at latest follow-up.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, case series, retrospective.
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