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Opening-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy With High Hinge Position Risks Lateral Hinge Fracture in Men With Posterolateral Tibial Condyle Protrusion

      Purpose

      The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional morphology of the proximal tibia around the osteotomy plane in open-wedge high tibial osteotomy, focusing on the posterolateral (PL) and posteromedial (PM) tibial condyles, and to clarify the changes in morphologic parameters due to differences in patient characteristics and hinge position. The secondary aim was to examine whether morphologic features were associated with insufficient osteotomy, which increases the risk of lateral hinge fracture (LHF).

      Methods

      The PL and PM anteroposterior distance, asymmetry ratio, and discrepancy between PL and PM distances along the tibial osteotomy plane were measured. We investigated changes in the parameters due to differences in patient characteristics and hinge position. Osteotomy configurations and LHFs were evaluated using postoperative computed tomography scans.

      Results

      The 3-dimensional preoperative plans of 117 knees (male, 41 knees; female, 76 knees) were evaluated. PL distances were larger than PM distances in almost all cases. The average asymmetry ratio was 1.35, and the standard deviation was 0.22. Higher hinge position was associated with a larger asymmetry ratio and discrepancy (P < .001). The asymmetry ratio and discrepancy were independently positively correlated with male sex (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively) and gentle posterior tibial slope (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Osteotomies with type III LHFs showed lower osteotomy sufficiency than osteotomies without LHFs (P < .001).

      Conclusions

      PL tibial condyle protrusion was more pronounced in male patients and those with a high hinge position, and may result in insufficient PL osteotomy, which is a risk factor for type III LHF during open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. The optimal hinge position was located approximately 15 mm and 20 mm distal to the lateral tibial plateau in female and male patients, respectively.

      Level of Evidence

      IV: retrospective case series.
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