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Early Treatment of Shoulder Pathology Is Necessary but Not Enough Is Being Performed

      Abstract

      Delayed treatment of shoulder instability results in bone loss requiring more-complicated surgery, in turn resulting in less-optimal outcomes. Similarly, delayed treatment of repairable rotator cuff tears results in irreparable tears requiring more-complicated surgery and resulting in less-optimal outcomes. Delayed treatment of shoulder pathology is a problem. Solutions include education and research investigation.
      There have been an enormous number of publications on shoulder instability with bone loss in the last few years.

      Lander ST, Liles JL, Kim BI, Taylor DC, Lau BC. Validation of 3D MRI in glenohumeral instability evaluation of glenoid and humeral bone loss including glenoid track compared to CT scan [published online August 2, 2022]. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2022.06.015.

      Arenas-Miquelez A, Karargyris O, Graham PL, Hertel R. High correlation between inner and outer glenoid circle diameters and its clinical relevance [published online July 9, 2022]. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. doi:10.1007/s00167-022-07050-y.

      • Liles J.L.
      • Ganokroj P.
      • Peebles A.M.
      • Mologne M.S.
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      Primary distal tibia allograft for restoration of glenohumeral stability with anterior glenoid bone loss.
      • Lukenchuk J.
      • Thangarajah T.
      • More K.
      • Wong I.
      • Lo I.K.Y.
      Arthroscopic anterior glenoid reconstruction using a distal tibial allograft positioned with an intra-articular guide and secured with double-button fixation.
      • Liles J.L.
      • Ganokroj P.
      • Peebles A.M.
      • Mologne M.S.
      • Provencher M.T.
      Fresh distal tibial allograft: An updated graft preparation technique for anterior shoulder instability.
      • Hurley E.T.
      • Colasanti C.A.
      • Lorentz N.A.
      • et al.
      No difference in outcomes after arthroscopic Bankart repair with remplissage or arthroscopic Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability.
      • Polio W.
      • Brolin T.J.
      Remplissage for anterior shoulder instability: History, indications, and outcomes.

      Rayes J, Xu J, Sparavalo S, Ma J, Jonah L, Wong I. Calculating glenoid bone loss based on glenoid height using ipsilateral three-dimensional computed tomography [published online June 8, 2022]. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. doi:10.1007/s00167-022-07020-4.

      • Peebles L.A.
      • Golijanin P.
      • Peebles A.M.
      • Douglass B.W.
      • Arner J.W.
      • Provencher M.T.
      Glenoid bone loss directly affects Hill-Sachs morphology: An advanced 3-dimensional analysis.
      • Monroe E.J.
      • Brand J.C.
      Editorial commentary: Dynamic anterior stabilization via biceps tenodesis to the glenoid is an option for anterior shoulder instability with subcritical glenoid bone loss.
      • Makhni E.C.
      • Tramer J.S.
      • Anderson M.J.J.
      • Levine W.N.
      Evaluating bone loss in anterior shoulder instability.
      • Huang J.
      • Huang D.
      • Wang J.
      • Ye Z.
      • Liu H.
      Arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation using the long head of the biceps tendon for anterior shoulder instability.
      • Tokish J.M.
      • Brinkman J.C.
      • Hassebrock J.D.
      Arthroscopic technique for distal tibial allograft bone augmentation with suture anchor fixation for anterior shoulder instability.
      • Mittelsteadt M.
      • Nelson B.J.
      • Rohman E.M.
      • Arciero R.A.
      • Tompkins M.A.
      Biomechanical testing of scapular spine autograft for anterior glenoid bone augmentation.

      Nicholson AD, Carey EG, Mathew JI, et al. Biomechanical analysis of anterior stability after 15% glenoid bone loss: Comparison of Bankart repair, dynamic anterior stabilization, dynamic anterior stabilization with Bankart repair, and Latarjet [published online May 18, 2022]. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2022.04.017.

      Mahmoud HF, Farhan AH, Fahmy FS. Satisfactory functional results and complication rates after anterior glenoid bone block reconstruction in recurrent shoulder dislocation: A mean 4-year follow-up comparative study [published online May 10, 2022]. J ISAKOS. doi:10.1016/j.jisako.2022.04.009.

      • Muench L.N.
      • Imhoff A.B.
      • Mehl J.T.
      Editorial commentary: Double-sling transfer of both the conjoined tendons and long head biceps tendon for glenoid bone loss in patients with shoulder instability shows biomechanical benefit in shoulder abduction and external rotation but may be insufficient in mid-range arm positions.
      • Harper A.
      • Sparavalo S.
      • Ma J.
      • Wong I.
      Fixation type does not affect the learning curve and short-term radiographic outcomes for arthroscopic anatomic glenoid reconstruction with distal tibia allograft.
      • Pathak S.
      • Haidermota M.J.
      • VKK H.
      • Sancheti P.
      Arthroscopic Bankart and remplissage for anteroinferior instability with subcritical bone loss has a low recurrence rate.

      Sgroi M, Huzurudin H, Ludwig M, Zippelius T, Reichel H, Kappe T. MRI allows accurate measurement of glenoid bone loss. Clin Orthop Relat Res 20221;480:1731-1742.

      • Horinek J.L.
      • Horinek M.E.
      • Narbona P.
      • Lädermann A.
      • Barth J.
      • Denard P.J.
      Remplissage yields similar 2-year outcomes, fewer complications, and low recurrence compared to Latarjet across a wide range of preoperative glenoid bone loss.
      • Waterman B.
      Editorial commentary: Buttoning up after recurrent anterior shoulder instability: The Eden-Hybinette procedure is an effective salvage after failed Latarjet.
      • Kang Y.
      • Wang L.
      • Wang M.
      • Wei Y.
      • Li Y.
      • Jiang J.
      • Yu S.
      • Zhao J.
      • Xie G.
      Bankart repair with transferred long head of the biceps provides better biomechanical effect than conjoined tendon transfer in anterior shoulder instability with 20% glenoid defect.
      • James M.
      • Kwong C.A.
      • More K.D.
      • LeBlanc J.
      • Lo I.K.Y.
      • Bois A.J.
      Bony apprehension test for identifying bone loss in patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability: A validation study.
      • Moroder P.
      • Kathi T.
      • Lacheta L.
      • Karpinski K.
      • Paksoy A.
      • Akgün D.
      Arthroscopic bone block cerclage technique using a tricortical scapular spine autograft for glenoid reconstruction in patients with anterior shoulder instability.
      • Shaha J.
      Editorial Commentary: Recurrent anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss requires restoring the bone.
      • Giacomo G.D.
      • Pugliese M.
      • Peebles A.M.
      • Provencher M.T.
      Bone fragment resorption and clinical outcomes of traumatic bony Bankart lesion treated with arthroscopic repair versus open Latarjet.

      Martinez-Catalan N, Kazum E, Zampeli F, Cartaya M, Cerlier A, Valenti P. Long-term outcomes of arthroscopic Bankart repair and Hill-Sachs remplissage for bipolar bone defects [published online February 28, 2022]. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. doi:10.1007/s00590-022-03237-8.

      • Danilkowicz R.M.
      • Crook B.
      • Kim J.
      • Robinette J.P.
      • O'Donnell J.
      • Grimm N.L.
      Patient factors associated with increased risk for complications after the Latarjet procedure.
      • Ernat J.J.
      • Rakowski D.R.
      • Hanson J.A.
      • et al.
      High rate of return to sport and excellent patient- reported outcomes after an open Latarjet procedure.
      • Campos-Méndez A.
      • Rayes J.
      • Wong I.
      Arthroscopic anatomic glenoid reconstruction with distal tibial allograft and hybrid fixation.
      • Peebles A.M.
      • Provencher M.T.
      Editorial Commentary: Posterior shoulder instability surgical treatment outcomes are inferior to outcomes of anterior instability: Standardization of patient evaluation and indications could improve results.
      • Antonios T.
      • Arnander M.
      • Pearse E.
      • Tennent T.D.
      Arthroscopic iliac crest bone graft augmentation using all-suture anchors for shoulder instability caused by glenoid bone loss.
      • Oldfield M.
      • Burns J.
      • Wong I.
      Arthroscopic glenoid bone augmentation using iliac crest autograft is safe and effective for anterior shoulder instability with bone loss.
      • Weil S.
      • Arnander M.
      • Pearse Y.
      • Tennent D.
      Reporting of glenoid bone loss measurement in clinical studies and the need for standardization: A systematic review.
      • Collin P.
      • Nabergoj M.
      • Denard P.J.
      • Wang S.
      • Bothorel H.
      • Lädermann A.
      Arthroscopic biceps transfer to the glenoid with Bankart repair grants satisfactory 2-year results for recurrent anteroinferior glenohumeral instability in subcritical bone loss.
      • Heaps B.M.
      • Steffes M.J.
      • Banffy M.B.
      Arthroscopic Latarjet procedure utilizing a Latarjet with cortical button fixation performed in the lateral position.
      • Hewins B.
      • Wong I.
      Treatment of failed Latarjet with arthroscopic anatomic glenoid reconstruction.
      • Boileau P.
      • Baring T.
      • Greco V.
      Arthroscopic distal clavicular autograft for congruent glenoid reconstruction.
      • Wang L.
      • Kang Y.
      • Li Y.
      • et al.
      Dynamic double-sling augmentation prevents anteroinferior translation for recurrent anteroinferior shoulder dislocation with 20% glenoid bone loss: A cadaveric biomechanical study.
      • Lobao M.H.
      • Abbasi P.
      • Murthi A.M.
      Long head of biceps transfer to augment Bankart repair in chronic anterior shoulder instability with and without subcritical bone loss: A biomechanical study.
      • Wei J.
      • Lu M.
      • Zhao L.
      • Zeng X.
      • He L.
      Free bone grafting improves clinical outcomes in anterior shoulder instability with bone defect: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies with a minimum of 1-year follow-up.
      • Solomon D.J.
      Editorial Commentary: Better stability found with primary Latarjet compared with those performed after a failed arthroscopic Bankart repair: Should we be doing more primary Latarjet procedures?.
      • Ali Z.S.
      • Thavorn K.
      • Murphy R.
      • Sparavalo S.
      • Wong I.
      Primary Bankart repair versus arthroscopic anatomic glenoid reconstruction in patients with subcritical bone loss: A cost-utility analysis.
      • Stern C.
      • Marcon M.
      • Bouaicha S.
      • Wieser K.
      • Rosskopf A.B.
      • Sutter R.
      Dual energy CT arthrography in shoulder instability: successful iodine removal with virtual non-contrast images and accurate 3D reformats of the glenoid for assessment of bone loss.
      • Cruz C.A.
      • Sy J.
      • Miles R.
      • Bottoni C.R.
      • Min K.S.
      Surgical treatment of anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss with the Latarjet procedure in active-duty military service members.
      • Scanaliato J.P.
      • Dunn J.C.
      • Fitzpatrick K.V.
      • Czajkowski H.
      • Parnes N.
      Double-pulley remplissage in active-duty military population with off-track anterior shoulder instability results in improved outcomes and low recurrence at minimum 4-year follow-up.
      • Hurley E.T.
      • Davey M.S.
      • Montgomery C.
      • et al.
      Arthroscopic Bankart repair versus open Latarjet for recurrent shoulder instability in athletes.
      • Sheean A.J.
      Editorial Commentary: Remplissage is not needed when performing the Latarjet procedure in the setting of off-track Hill-Sachs lesions: One of the classics continues to get better with age (and some help from new data).
      • Sheth U.
      Editorial Commentary: Management of first-time anterior shoulder instability requires risk stratification and surgery for many, but not all.
      • Dorweiler M.A.
      • Bishop J.Y.
      Editorial Commentary: Lower return to play after failed prior instability surgery: Should the open Latarjet be the gold standard for anterior shoulder instability?.
      • Hurley E.T.
      • Matache B.A.
      • Wong I.
      • et al.
      Anterior Shoulder Instability International Consensus Group. Anterior shoulder instability part II—Latarjet, remplissage, and glenoid bone-grafting—an international consensus statement.
      • Agarwalla A.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • et al.
      High rate of return to work by 3 months following Latarjet for anterior shoulder instability.
      • Shubert S.B.
      Editorial Commentary: Surgical treatment of shoulder instability with subcritical glenoid bone loss requires innovation: Bankart may risk significant recurrence and Latarjet may risk significant complications.
      • Randelli P.S.
      Editorial Commentary: Personalized medicine for shoulder instability may result in best outcomes with the lowest complication rates.
      • Godinho A.C.
      • Godinho P.C.
      • Salgado Ribeiro E.J.
      • et al.
      Influence of the glenoid track and glenoid bone loss on the apprehension test for shoulder instability.
      • Ruzbarsky J.J.
      • Nolte P.C.
      • Elrick B.P.
      • Provencher C.M.T.
      • Millett P.J.
      Complex revision glenoid reconstruction with use of a distal tibial allograft.
      • Weber A.E.
      • Bolia I.K.
      • Horn A.
      • et al.
      Glenoid bone loss in shoulder instability: Superiority of three-dimensional computed tomography over two-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging using established methodology.
      • Hohmann E.
      Editorial Commentary: Delphi expert consensus clarifies evidence-based medicine for shoulder instability and bone loss.
      • Malahias M.A.
      • Mitrogiannis L.
      • Gerogiannis D.
      • Chronopoulos E.
      • Kaseta M.K.
      • Antonogiannakis E.
      Non-rigid fixation of the glenoid bone block for patients with recurrent anterior instability and major glenoid bone loss: A systematic review.
      • Boileau P.
      • Balg F.
      Editorial Commentary: Should we condemn the shoulder instability severity index scoring system? Not at all!... can we improve its radiographic component? Yes, We Can!.
      • Matsumura N.
      • Kaneda K.
      • Oki S.
      • et al.
      Factors related to large bone defects of bipolar lesions and a high number of instability episodes with anterior glenohumeral instability.
      • Ueda Y.
      • Sugaya H.
      • Takahashi N.
      • et al.
      Arthroscopic iliac bone grafting for traumatic anterior shoulder instability with significant glenoid bone loss yields low recurrence and good outcome at a minimum of five-year follow-up.
      • Imai S.
      A new guide for the arthroscopically assisted Latarjet procedure.
      • Chou A.C.C.
      • Kang B.J.
      • Tan A.J.
      • Tjoen Lie D.T.
      Arthroscopic repair is sufficient for treating recurrent shoulder instability in patients with bipolar bone defects and minor glenoid bone loss.
      • Schillhammer C.K.
      Editorial Commentary: Improving arthroscopic Bankart repair outcomes in patients with subcritical bone loss: does giving up a little (cartilage), give us a lot (of stability)?.
      • Guevara B.G.
      Editorial Commentary: The Latarjet: Increased shoulder stability, and increased risk of complications in low volume practitioners.
      • Vezeridis P.S.
      Editorial Commentary: Arthroscopic shoulder instability surgery and glenoid bone loss: A paradigm shift?.
      • Lubowitz J.H.
      • Brand J.C.
      • Rossi M.J.
      Proper evaluation of bone loss determines shoulder instability indications and outcomes.
      • Xiang M.
      • Yang J.
      • Chen H.
      • et al.
      Arthroscopic autologous scapular spine bone graft combined with Bankart repair for anterior shoulder instability with subcritical (10%-15%) glenoid bone loss.
      • Lädermann A.
      Editorial Commentary: Augmented Bankart could be the right option for subcritical bone loss.
      • Provencher M.T.
      • Peebles A.M.
      Editorial Commentary: Preoperative 3-dimensional imaging for shoulder instability is vital for determination of off-track lesions and may indicate Bankart repair plus remplissage.
      • Levine W.N.
      • Makhni E.C.
      • Athwal G.S.
      • Tokish J.M.
      Technical pearls for shoulder instability.
      • Frank R.M.
      • Thon S.G.
      • Tokish J.M.
      • et al.
      Management of shoulder instability in 2020: What, when, and how.
      • Gilat R.
      • Haunschild E.D.
      • Tauro T.
      • et al.
      Distal tibial allograft augmentation for posterior shoulder instability associated with glenoid bony deficiency: A case series.
      • Cheng T.T.
      • Edmonds E.W.
      • Bastrom T.P.
      • Pennock A.T.
      Glenoid pathology, skeletal immaturity, and multiple preoperative instability events are risk factors for recurrent anterior shoulder instability after arthroscopic stabilization in adolescent athletes.
      • Russo R.
      • Maiotti M.
      • Cozzolino A.
      • et al.
      Arthroscopic iliac crest bone allograft combined with subscapularis upper-third tenodesis shows a low recurrence rate in the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability associated with critical bone loss.
      • Dekker T.J.
      • Peebles L.A.
      • Bernhardson A.S.
      • et al.
      Limited predictive value of the instability severity index score: evaluation of 217 consecutive cases of recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      • Stefaniak J.
      • Lubiatowski P.
      • Kubicka A.M.
      • Wawrzyniak A.
      • Wałecka J.
      • Romanowski L.
      Clinical and radiological examination of bony-mediated shoulder instability.
      • Arner J.W.
      • Peebles L.A.
      • Bradley J.P.
      • Provencher M.T.
      Anterior shoulder instability management: Indications, techniques, and outcomes.
      • Avramidis G.
      • Kokkineli S.
      • Trellopoulos A.
      • et al.
      Excellent clinical and radiological midterm outcomes for the management of recurrent anterior shoulder instability by all-arthroscopic modified Eden-Hybinette procedure using iliac crest autograft and double-pair button fixation system: 3-year clinical case series with no loss to follow-up.
      • Bishai S.K.
      • Hinz J.A.
      • Ward L.C.
      • Martinez M.M.
      Management of traumatic coracoid fracture and anterior shoulder instability with a modified arthroscopic Latarjet technique.
      • Bois A.J.
      • Mayer M.J.
      • Fening S.D.
      • Jones M.H.
      • Miniaci A.
      Management of bone loss in recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder instability: A survey of North American surgeons.
      • Lansdown D.A.
      • Pedoia V.
      Editorial Commentary: Can we evaluate glenoid bone with magnetic resonance imaging? Yes, if you have the right sequence.
      • Vopat M.L.
      • Peebles L.A.
      • McBride T.
      • Cirone I.
      • Rider D.
      • Provencher M.T.
      Accuracy and reliability of imaging modalities for the diagnosis and quantification of Hill-Sachs lesions: A systematic review.
      • Moroder P.
      Editorial Commentary: Glenoid bone loss measurements in shoulder instability—precise but not accurate.
      • Levy B.J.
      • Grimm N.L.
      • Arciero R.A.
      When to abandon the arthroscopic Bankart repair: A systematic review.
      • Castricini R.
      • Taverna E.
      • Guarrella V.
      • De Benedetto M.
      • Galasso O.
      Arthroscopic Latarjet procedure: A technique using double round ENDOBUTTONs and specific glenoid and coracoid guides.
      • Agha O.
      • Rugg C.M.
      • Lansdown D.A.
      • et al.
      Surgical stabilization of shoulder instability in patients with or without a history of seizure: A comparative analysis.
      • Anderl W.
      • Heuberer P.R.
      • Pauzenberger L.
      Arthroscopic, implant-free bone-grafting for shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss.
      • Verweij L.P.E.
      • Schuit A.A.
      • Kerkhoffs G.M.M.J.
      • Blankevoort L.
      • van den Bekerom M.P.J.
      • van Deurzen D.F.P.
      Accuracy of currently available methods in quantifying anterior glenoid bone loss: Controversy regarding gold standard—a systematic review.
      • Jeong J.Y.
      • Yoo Y.S.
      • Kim T.
      Arthroscopic iliac bone block augmentation for glenoid reconstruction: Transglenoid fixation technique using an all-suture anchor.
      • Friedman L.G.M.
      • Lafosse L.
      • Garrigues G.E.
      Global perspectives on management of shoulder instability: Decision making and treatment.
      • Boehm E.
      • Minkus M.
      • Moroder P.
      • Scheibel M.
      Massive graft resorption after iliac crest allograft reconstruction for glenoid bone loss in recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      • Malahias M.A.
      • Chytas D.
      • Raoulis V.
      • Chronopoulos E.
      • Brilakis E.
      • Antonogiannakis E.
      Iliac crest bone grafting for the management of anterior shoulder instability in patients with glenoid bone loss: A systematic review of contemporary literature.
      • Yian E.H.
      • Weathers M.
      • Knott J.R.
      • Sodl J.F.
      • Spencer H.T.
      Predicting failure after primary arthroscopic Bankart repair: Analysis of a statistical model using anatomic risk factors.
      • Ali J.
      • Altintas B.
      • Pulatkan A.
      • Boykin R.E.
      • Aksoy D.O.
      • Bilsel K.
      Open versus arthroscopic Latarjet procedure for the treatment of chronic anterior glenohumeral instability with glenoid bone loss.
      • Barber F.A.
      • Howard M.S.
      Editorial Commentary: Glenoid track instability management score or instability severity index score—will this decrease Latarjet abuse?.
      • Provencher M.T.
      • Peebles L.A.
      • Akamefula R.A.
      Editorial Commentary: Methodology of measuring bone loss in recurrent shoulder instability surgery: Traditional computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging do not tell the full story.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Christensen G.
      • O'Neill D.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Does bone loss imaging modality, measurement methodology, and interobserver reliability alter treatment in glenohumeral instability?.
      • Nakagawa S.
      • Uchida R.
      • Yokoi H.
      • Sahara W.
      • Mae T.
      Changes of bipolar bone defect size after arthroscopic Bankart repair for traumatic anterior shoulder instability: Evaluation using a scoring system and influence on postoperative recurrence.
      • Bokshan S.L.
      • Gil J.A.
      • DeFroda S.F.
      • Badida R.
      • Crisco J.J.
      • Owens B.D.
      Biomechanical comparison of the long head of the biceps tendon versus conjoint tendon transfer in a bone loss shoulder instability model.
      • Hirose T.
      • Nakagawa S.
      • Iuchi R.
      • Mae T.
      • Hayashida K.
      Progression of erosive changes of glenoid rim after arthroscopic Bankart repair.
      • Yamamoto N.
      • Kawakami J.
      • Hatta T.
      • Itoi E.
      Effect of subcritical glenoid bone loss on activities of daily living in patients with anterior shoulder instability.
      With so much published, a series of textbooks could be filled. In addition, there have been a massive number of recent publications on irreparable rotator cuff tears.

      Hasegawa A, Mihata T, Fukunishi K, Itami Y, Uchida A, Neo M. Structural and clinical outcomes after superior capsule reconstruction using an at least 6-mm thick fascia lata autograft including the intermuscular septum [published online August 20, 2022]. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2022.07.010.

      Ben H, Kholinne E, Lee JB, So SP, Zeng CH, Koh KH, Jeon IH. Postoperative MRI signal intensity correlates functional outcomes after superior capsular reconstruction [published online August 18, 2022]. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. doi:10.1007/s00167-022-07111-2.

      Hughes JD, Davis B, Whicker E, et al. Nonarthroplasty options for massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears have improvement in range of motion and patient-reported outcomes at short-term follow-up: A systematic review [published online August 16, 2022]. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. doi:10.1007/s00167-022-07099-9.

      • Chiu C.H.
      • Yang C.P.
      • Tang H.C.
      • et al.
      Arthroscopic-assisted lower trapezius tendon transfer with autologous semitendinosus tendon and long head of biceps superior capsule reconstruction for massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.

      Galvin J, Kim R, Ment A, et al. Outcomes and complications of primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty with minimum of two-years follow-up: A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online July 20, 2022]. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2022.06.005.

      • Gbejuade H.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Singh H.
      • Modi A.
      Reconstruction of irreparable rotator cuff tears with an acellular dermal matrix in elderly patients without joint arthritis.
      • Kaisidis A.
      • Pantos P.
      • Bochlos D.
      The subacromial spacer system for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears: A retrospective study of 47 patients with a two-year follow-up.

      Baek CH, Kim JG. Outcomes of arthroscopic-assisted middle trapezius tendon transfer for isolated irreparable supraspinatus tendon tears: Minimum 2-year follow-up [published online July 16, 2022]. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. doi:10.1007/s00402-022-04542-x.

      Ono Y, LeBlanc J, Bois AJ, et al. Graft healing is more important than graft technique: Superior capsular reconstruction versus bridging grafts—a prospective randomized controlled trial [published online July 11, 2022]. Arthroscopy. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2022.06.033.

      Garríguez-Pérez D, Lópiz Y, García-Fernández C, Marco F. Poor results after arthroscopic treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tears using a subacromial balloon spacer [published online July 12, 2022]. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. doi:10.5435/JAAOS-D-22-00025.

      • Knapp T.P.
      Editorial Commentary: Dermal allografts are indicated for repair of irreparable rotator cuff tears and for revision surgery, and may be cost-effective for primary repair.
      • Ankem H.K.
      Editorial Commentary: Allogenic dermal fibroblasts in collagen matrix scaffold enhance rotator cuff repair in an animal model.
      • Cha E.D.K.
      • Shultz K.
      • Chan K.
      • Choi J.
      Longitudinal efficacy of acellular dermal allograft following superior capsular reconstruction of irreparable rotator cuff tears.

      Harada N, Ishitani E, Gotoh M, Shiba N. The clinical outcomes of infraspinatus rotational transfer for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears: A preliminary report [published online June 27, 2022]. Clin Shoulder Elb. doi:10.5397/cise.2021.00731.

      • Preuss F.R.
      • Day H.K.
      • Peebles A.M.
      • Mologne M.S.
      • Provencher M.T.
      Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for treatment of massive, irreparable rotator cuff tear.

      Labib M, Amirouche F, Pradhan S, Bobko A, Koh J. A biomechanical analysis of shoulder muscle excursions during abduction, after the treatment of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears using superior capsular reconstruction (SCR), bursal acromial reconstruction (BAR), and SCR with BAR [published online June 23, 2022]. J Shoulder Elb Arthroplast. doi:10.1177/24715492221109001.

      • Verma N.
      • Srikumaran U.
      • Roden C.M.
      • et al.
      on behalf of the SPACE GROUP. InSpace implant compared with partial repair for the treatment of full-thickness massive rotator cuff tears: A multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial.
      • Cheppalli N.S.
      • Purudappa P.P.
      • Metikala S.
      • et al.
      Superior capsular reconstruction using the biceps tendon in the treatment of irreparable massive rotator cuff tears improves patient-reported outcome scores: A systematic review.
      • Bilsel K.
      • Aliyev O.
      • Altintas B.
      • Bagh Ali Shah S.D.
      • Ertogrul R.
      • Kapicioglu M.
      Subacromial spacer implantation during arthroscopic partial repair in patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears provides satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes: A retrospective comparative study.

      Muench LN, Berthold DP, Kia C, et al. Biomechanical comparison of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears using a dynamic shoulder model [published online June 23, 2022]. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2022.05.003.

      • Howard M.C.
      • Waterman B.R.
      Editorial Commentary: Predictors of best outcomes after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tear.
      • Waterman B.R.
      Editorial Commentary: Increased graft thickness with superior capsular reconstruction results in improved acromiohumeral distance, but increased graft tear rate and lateral acromial erosion.
      • Lopez-Fernandez V.
      • Mariaux S.
      • Lafosse L.
      • Lafosse T.
      Technical guide and tips to posterior arthroscopic latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.
      • Park S.G.
      • Seok H.G.
      Use of an arthroscopic bridging graft for irreparable rotator cuff tears with the modified Mason-Allen stitch using a tendon autograft.
      • Cartucho A.
      Tendon transfers for massive rotator cuff tears.
      • Zanini B.
      • Rusconi M.
      • Fornara P.
      • Malgrati F.
      • Grassi F.A.
      • Leigheb M.
      Functional outcome of arthroscopic debridement for massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Vecchini E.
      • Gulmini M.
      • Peluso A.
      • et al.
      The treatment of irreparable massive rotator cuff tears with InSpace balloon: Rational and medium-term results.
      • Cunningham J.G.
      • Ebert J.R.
      • Campbell P.
      • Falconer T.
      Does subscapularis integrity influence outcome following latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable cuff tears? A comparative series of 48 patients.
      • Baek C.H.
      • Kim J.G.
      • Baek G.R.
      Outcomes of combined anterior latissimus dorsi and teres major tendon transfer for irreparable anterosuperior rotator cuff tears [published online May 10, 2022].
      • Baek C.H.
      • Lim C.
      • Kim J.G.
      Superior capsular reconstruction versus lower trapezius transfer for posterosuperior irreparable rotator cuff tears with high-grade fatty infiltration in the infraspinatus.
      • Waterman B.R.
      Editorial Commentary: Determination of meaningful, clinically significant outcome thresholds for superior capsular reconstruction of the shoulder: Predicting those patients who improve and those who don’t!.
      • Foster M.J.
      • Hanson J.A.
      • Millett P.J.
      Editorial Commentary: Shoulder superior capsular reconstruction graft tensioning between 30° and 40° of glenohumeral abduction is recommended: The balance beam of superior capsular reconstruction.
      • Kawashima K.
      • Terabayashi N.
      • Asano H.
      • Akiyama H.
      Arthroscopic long head of the biceps transposition for superior capsular augmentation results in comparable clinical outcomes to arthroscopic partial repair for irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Gabbott B.
      • Pearse Y.
      • Arnander M.
      • Tennent D.
      Superior capsule reconstruction is a viable option for patients with symptomatic, isolated, and irreparable supraspinatus tears.
      • Metcalfe A.
      • Parsons H.
      • Parsons N.
      • et al.
      START:REACTS team. Subacromial balloon spacer for irreparable rotator cuff tears of the shoulder (START:REACTS): A group-sequential, double-blind, multicentre randomised controlled trial.
      • Beard D.
      • Chokotho L.
      Subacromial balloon spacer for irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Ma M.
      • Pan Z.
      • Lu L.
      Clinical effect of arthroscopic long head of biceps transfer and tenodesis on irreparable rotator cuff tear.
      • Baek C.H.
      • Lee D.H.
      • Kim J.G.
      Latissimus dorsi transfer vs. lower trapezius transfer for posterosuperior irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • O'Neil S.
      • Marvil S.
      • Lakehomer H.
      • et al.
      Modified technique for arthroscopic bursal acromial reconstruction utilizing acellular dermal allograft.
      • Feldman M.D.
      Editorial Commentary: Interposition graft bridging reconstruction: Good mid-term outcomes for massive irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Ho S.W.L.
      • Denard P.J.
      • Chong X.L.
      • Collin P.
      • Wang S.
      • Lädermann A.
      Achilles tendon – bone block allograft for massive rotator cuff tears with bony deficiency of the greater tuberosity: A minimum 2-year follow-up study.
      • Li X.
      • Galvin J.W.
      • Zalneraitis B.H.
      • et al.
      Muscle tendon transfers around the shoulder: Diagnosis, treatment, surgical techniques, and outcomes.
      • Cromheecke M.
      • Garret J.
      • Deranlot J.
      • et al.
      French Arthroscopic Society (SFA)
      Low healing rates and moderate functional outcome after arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction using a porcine xenograft.
      • Llanos-Rodríguez Á
      • Escandón-Almazán P.
      • Espejo-Reina A.
      • Nogales-Zafra J.
      • Espejo-Baena A.
      Arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction with Achilles tendon allograft for massive and revision rotator cuff tears.
      • Callegari J.J.
      • Phillips C.J.
      • Lee T.Q.
      • Kruse K.
      • Denard P.J.
      Semitendinosus allograft cable reconstruction technique for massive irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Smith G.C.
      • Im H.Y.
      • Lam P.H.
      Effect of human dermal allograft thickness on glenohumeral stability for superior capsular reconstruction in irreparable supraspinatus tears: A biomechanical analysis of the superior capsular reconstruction—A cadaveric study.
      • Dhawan A.
      Editorial Commentary: Clinical improvements of superior capsular reconstruction are not due to maintained dynamic acromiohumeral distance.
      • Sánchez Carbonel J.F.
      • Hinz M.
      • Lozano C.
      • Kleim B.D.
      • Imhoff A.B.
      • Siebenlist S.
      Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor transfer for irreparable subscapularis tendon tears.
      • Maman E.
      • Kazum E.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Biodegradable balloon spacer for massive irreparable rotator cuff tears is associated with improved functional outcomes, low revisions, and complications rate at minimum one year follow-up.

      Garofalo R, Fontanarosa A, De Crescenzo A, Conti M, Calbi R, Castagna A. Does arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction using porcine dermal xenograft represent a viable option in case of massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tear? [published online January 27, 2022]. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. doi:10.1007/s00402-022-04335-2.

      • Ye L.
      • Han D.
      • Zhang Q.
      • Yang X.
      • Tung T.H.
      • Zhou X.
      Early efficacy assessment of arthroscopic lower trapezius transfer with tendon autograft in the management of massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.
      • Modi A.
      • Haque A.
      • Deore V.
      • Singh H.P.
      • Pandey R.
      Interposition GraftJacket allografts for irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Luciani P.
      • Farinelli L.
      • De Berardinis L.
      • Gigante A.
      The arthroscopic intra-articular stabilization of the shoulder for irreparable rotator cuff tear: A new technique proposal.
      • Zafra M.
      • Uceda P.
      Arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction using semitendinosus tendon autograft for irreparable rotator cuff tears: Preliminary results.
      • Mirzayan R.
      • Acevedo D.C.
      • Sidell M.A.
      • et al.
      Classification system of graft tears following superior capsule reconstruction.
      • Imai S.
      Graft-augmented repair of irreparable massive rotator cuff tears with latissimus dorsi transfer to treat pseudoparesis.
      • Jackson G.R.
      • Bedi A.
      • Denard P.J.
      Graft augmentation of repairable rotator cuff tears: An algorithmic approach based on healing rates.
      • Shin S.J.
      • Lee S.
      • Hwang J.Y.
      • Lee W.
      • Koh K.H.
      Superior capsular reconstruction using acellular dermal allograft combined with remaining rotator cuff augmentation improved shoulder pain and function at 1 year after the surgery.
      • Chiu C.H.
      • Weng C.J.
      • Tang H.C.
      • et al.
      Anatomical dermal allograft and autologous biceps long head superior capsule reconstruction for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.
      • Haque A.
      • Pal Singh H.
      • Pandey R.
      Treatment of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears using dermal allograft bridging reconstruction.
      • Li H.
      • Zhou B.
      • Tang K.
      Advancement in arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction for irreparable massive rotator cuff tear.
      • Kucirek N.K.
      • Hung N.J.
      • Wong S.E.
      Treatment options for massive irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Khan M.
      Editorial Commentary: Superior capsular reconstruction: Indications and proper technique results in good outcomes but reports of complications.
      • Saithna A.
      Editorial Commentary: Human dermal allograft is preferable to fascia lata autograft based on similar outcomes without donor-site morbidity.
      • Voloshin I.
      Editorial Commentary: Long head biceps tendon autograft is an ideal and cost-effective graft choice in superior capsular reconstruction of the glenohumeral joint.
      • Hohmann E.
      • Lubowitz J.H.
      • Brand J.C.
      • Rossi M.J.
      Medical journals should be a forum for disruptive research.
      • Gomes N.
      • Fonte H.
      • Santos S.
      • Sousa D.
      Subacromial resurfacing with fascia lata autograft for irreparable cuff tears: JEO 2021 expert opinion short report & surgical technique with video.
      • Awad M.A.
      • Sparavalo S.
      • Ma J.
      • King J.P.
      • Wong I.
      Interposition graft bridging reconstruction of irreparable rotator cuff tears using acellular dermal matrix: Medium-term results.
      • Broida S.E.
      • Sweeney A.P.
      • Gottschalk M.B.
      • Woodmass J.M.
      • Wagner E.R.
      Clinical outcomes of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer and superior capsular reconstruction for irreparable rotator cuff tears: A systematic review.
      • Mirzayan R.
      • Bouz G.
      Biologic tuberoplasty with an acellular dermal allograft for massive rotator cuff tears.
      • Denard P.J.
      • Park M.C.
      • McGarry M.H.
      • Adamson G.
      • Lee T.Q.
      Biomechanical assessment of a v-shaped semitendinosus allograft anterior cable reconstruction for irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Forlizzi J.M.
      • Sylvia S.M.
      • Pettit R.J.
      • et al.
      Surgical technique for superior capsule reconstruction with 6-mm acellular dermal allograft and knotless glenoid anchors.
      • Griffin J.W.
      • Runzo D.
      • Bonner K.F.
      Arthroscopic biologic interpositional tuberosity graft for the treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Berthold D.P.
      • Ravenscroft M.
      • Bell R.
      • et al.
      Bursal acromial reconstruction (BAR) using an acellular dermal allograft for massive, irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears: A dynamic biomechanical investigation.
      • Brandão B.L.
      • Soares da Fonseca R.
      • Zaluski A.D.
      • Gribel Carneiro B.
      • Cohen M.T.
      • da Rocha Motta Filho G.
      Superior capsular reconstruction using the long head of the biceps tendon: The biceps loop technique.
      • Gupta A.
      • Ker A.M.
      • Maharaj J.C.
      • Veen E.J.D.
      • Cutbush K.
      All-arthroscopic muscle slide and advancement technique to repair massive retracted posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.
      • Hsu C.H.
      • Chiu C.H.
      • Weng C.J.
      • Hsu K.Y.
      • Chan Y.S.
      • Chao-Yu Chen A.
      Arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction using autologous fascia lata and biceps tendon augmentation.
      • Moriyama H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Tanaka K.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ozono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • Shiba N.
      Midterm functional and structural outcomes of large/massive cuff tears treated by arthroscopic partial repair.

      Kane GE, LeVasseur CM, Hughes JD, et al. Improved outcomes following arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction may not be associated with changes in shoulder kinematics: An in vivo study. Arthroscopy 2022;38:267-275.

      • Osti L.
      • Milani L.
      • Ferrari S.
      • Maffulli N.
      Subacromial spacer implantation: An alternative to arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction. A systematic review.

      Achenbach L, Ahlers P, Pfeifer CG, Greiner S, Kääb MJ. Infraspinatus shift for massive, posterosuperior tears yields good clinical outcome [published online June 30, 2021]. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. doi:10.1007/s00402-021-04029-1.

      • St Pierre P.
      • Millett P.J.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Consensus statement on the treatment of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears: A Delphi approach by the Neer Circle of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons.
      • Eppler M.B.
      • Bolia I.K.
      • Tibone J.E.
      • et al.
      Superior capsular reconstruction of the shoulder.
      • Ulrich M.N.
      • Frantz T.L.
      • Everhart J.S.
      • et al.
      Superior capsular reconstruction: A salvage option for massive irreparable rotator cuff tears with pseudoparalysis or subscapularis insufficiency.
      • Prinja A.
      • Mohan H.
      • Singh J.
      • Walton M.
      • Funk L.
      • Monga P.
      Superior capsular reconstruction for irreparable rotator cuff tears: A literature review and specialist practice report.
      • Denard P.J.
      • Chae S.
      • Chalmers C.
      • et al.
      Biceps box configuration for superior capsule reconstruction of the glenohumeral joint decreases superior translation but not to native levels in a biomechanical study.
      • Tang J.
      • Zhao J.
      arthroscopic humeral bone tunnel-based tendon grafting and trapezius transfer for irreparable posterior superior rotator cuff tear.
      • Alarcon J.F.
      • Uribe-Echevarria B.
      • Clares C.
      • et al.
      Superior capsular reconstruction with autologous fascia lata using a single lateral-row technique is an effective option in massive irreparable rotator cuff tears: Minimum 2-year follow-up.
      • Viswanath A.
      • Bale S.
      • Trail I.
      Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for irreparable rotator cuff tears without arthritis: A systematic review.
      • Adam J.R.
      • Nanjayan S.K.T.
      • Johnson M.
      • Rangan A.
      Tendon transfers for irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Hohmann E.
      Editorial Commentary: If the massive rotator cuff tear is irreparable, just fix the rotator cable.
      • Kim D.
      • Um J.
      • Lee J.
      • Kim J.
      Improved clinical and radiologic outcomes seen after superior capsule reconstruction using long head biceps tendon autograft.
      • Sommer M.C.
      • Wagner E.
      • Zhu S.
      • et al.
      Complications of superior capsule reconstruction for the treatment of functionally irreparable rotator cuff tears: A systematic review.
      • Kitridis D.
      • Yiannakopoulos C.
      • Sinopidis C.
      • Givissis P.
      • Galanis N.
      Superior capsular reconstruction of the shoulder using the long head of the biceps tendon: A systematic review of surgical techniques and clinical outcomes.
      • Kadow T.R.
      • Meredith S.J.
      • Garcia D.
      • et al.
      Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer and superior capsular reconstruction for irreparable, posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.
      • Ravenscroft M.
      • Barnes M.W.
      • Muench L.N.
      • Mazzocca A.D.
      • Berthold D.P.
      Bursal acromial reconstruction (BAR) using an acellular dermal allograft as a surgical solution for the treatment of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Tang J.
      • Zhao J.
      Rooting rotator cuff reconstruction for irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear.
      • Terra B.B.
      • Sassine T.J.
      • Ejnisman B.
      • de Castro Pochini A.
      • Belangero P.S.
      Arthroscopic partial superior capsular reconstruction using the long head of the biceps tendon—technique description.
      • Moroder P.
      • Lacheta L.
      • Danzinger V.
      • Thiele K.
      • Ellermann S.
      • Akgün D.
      Arthroscopic middle trapezius transfer for treatment of irreparable superior rotator cuff tendon tears.
      • Selim N.M.
      • Badawy E.R.
      Consider long head of biceps tendon for reconstruction of massive, irreparable rotator cuff tear.
      • Wieser K.
      • Hasler J.
      Arthroscopic-assisted anterior latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable anterior rotator cuff tear: A technical note.
      • Smith T.J.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Kunkel J.
      • et al.
      Clinical outcomes of superior capsular reconstruction for massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears: A systematic review comparing acellular dermal allograft and autograft fascia lata.
      • Stone M.A.
      • Kane L.T.
      • Ho J.C.
      • Namdari S.
      Short-term outcomes of lower trapezius tendon transfer with Achilles allograft for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.
      • Elmorsy S.
      • Tang Q.O.
      • Tayyem M.
      • Amirthanayagam T.
      • Ravenscroft M.
      • Makki D.
      Arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction for management of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears: A simple alternative technique.
      • Lee S.J.
      • Min Y.K.
      • Chung I.K.
      • Kang S.W.
      • Banks S.A.
      Comparison of dynamic in vivo shoulder kinematics before and after superior capsular reconstruction for irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Cuéllar A.
      • Cuéllar R.
      Editorial Commentary: Shoulder superior capsular reconstruction with dermal allograft is useful for active patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tear.
      • Guevara B.G.
      Editorial Commentary: Balloons for rotator cuff tears: A viable treatment or just a bunch of hot air?.
      • Gibbs C.
      • Godshaw B.
      • Lesniak B.
      Editorial Commentary: Optimizing indications for shoulder superior capsular reconstruction: Choose the right patient at the right time!.
      • Moroder P.
      • Akgün D.
      • Lacheta L.
      • et al.
      Middle trapezius transfer for treatment of irreparable supraspinatus tendon tears—anatomical feasibility study.
      • Hasan S.S.
      Editorial Commentary: Superior capsular reconstruction works biomechanically but should be used selectively for genuinely irreparable tears.
      • Thacher R.R.
      • Heaps B.R.
      • Dines J.S.
      Superior capsule reconstruction: A glimpse into the future?.
      • Johns W.L.
      • Ailaney N.
      • Lacy K.
      • Golladay G.J.
      • Vanderbeck J.
      • Kalore N.V.
      Implantable subacromial balloon spacers in patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears: A systematic review of clinical, biomechanical, and financial implications.
      • Ernstbrunner L.
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      • Rohner M.
      • et al.
      Biomechanical analysis of arthroscopically assisted latissimus dorsi transfer fixation for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears—knotless versus knotted anchors.
      • Cline K.E.
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      • Ihn H.
      • et al.
      Superior capsule reconstruction using fascia lata allograft compared with double- and single-layer dermal allograft: A biomechanical study.
      • Ek E.T.
      • Lording T.
      • McBride A.P.
      Arthroscopic-assisted lower trapezius tendon transfer for massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears using an Achilles tendon–bone allograft.
      • Tang J.
      • Zhao J.
      Dynamic biceps rerouting for irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear.
      • Milano G.
      • Marchi G.
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      • et al.
      Augmented repair of large to massive delaminated rotator cuff tears with autologous long head of the biceps tendon graft: The arthroscopic "cuff-plus" technique.
      • Milano G.
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      • et al.
      Arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction with doubled autologous semitendinosus tendon graft.
      • Gao I.
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      • Sherman S.L.
      • Abrams G.D.
      Superior capsular reconstruction, 2021 reconstruction: A systematic review of surgical techniques and clinical outcomes.
      • Vogler T.
      • Andreou D.
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      • et al.
      Long-term outcome of arthroscopic debridement of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Eichinger J.K.
      Editorial Commentary: Look more closely at those coronal magnetic resonance imaging cuts before concluding a rotator cuff tendon tear is irreparable—don't let an l-shaped tear fool you.
      • Utsunomiya H.
      • Sekiya I.
      • Uchida S.
      Editorial Commentary: mesenchymal stem cell preparation methods affect the properties of shoulder subacromial bursa-derived cells.
      • Polacek M.
      • Nyegaard C.P.
      Superior capsular reconstruction using 3-layered fascia lata autograft reinforced with a nonresorbable suture mesh.
      • Moraiti K.
      • Zampeli F.
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      • Gantsos A.
      • Valenti P.
      Feasibility of lower trapezius transfer extended by the infraspinatus fascia for restoration of external rotation in irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears: An anatomical study.
      • Pashuck T.D.
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      • Cook J.L.
      • Cook C.R.
      • Andersen W.J.
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      Superior capsular reconstruction using dermal allograft is a safe and effective treatment for massive irreparable rotator cuff tears: 2-year clinical outcomes.
      • Familiari F.
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      • et al.
      Subacromial balloon spacer for massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears is associated with improved shoulder function and high patient satisfaction.
      • Dimock R.A.C.
      • Narvani A.A.
      Letter to Editor regarding "arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction for massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears: A systematic review of modern literature.".
      • Aramberri-Gutiérrez M.
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      • Gómez-Garrido D.
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      • Murillo-González J.A.
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      A lasso-loop traction technique for arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction.
      • Zhuo H.
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      • Gilat R.
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      Patient factors associated with clinical failure following arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction.
      • Smith T.J.
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      • Ghoraishian M.
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      • Elhassan B.
      • Abboud J.
      • Namdari S.
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      • Abd Elrahman A.A.
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      • Alike Y.
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      • Burnier M.
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      • Noyes M.P.
      • Haidamous G.
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      • Al-Ani Z.
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      • Memon K.A.
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      • Consigliere P.
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      Hamburger technique: Augmented rotator cuff repair with biological superior capsular reconstruction.
      • Wagner E.R.
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      Aurgical management of massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears: Arthroscopic-assisted lower trapezius transfer.
      • Wright M.A.
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      Subacromial balloon spacer implantation.
      • Wieser K.
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      • Rybalko D.
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      The biomechanics of the supraspinatus-deficient shoulder treated with superior capsular reconstruction vs. reverse total shoulder arthroplasty—experimental study.
      • Adrian S.C.
      • Field L.D.
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      • Bader D.A.L.
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      • Badman B.L.
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      • Osti L.
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      • Roth T.S.
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      • Okamura K.
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      • Mease S.J.
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      • Swan J.
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      • Siegert P.
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      • Plachel F.
      "Strings" (multiple tendon interposition autografts) for reconstruction of presumably irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Denard P.J.
      Editorial Commentary: How do we assess graft status after superior capsule reconstruction?.
      • Clavert P.
      • Arndt J.
      • Daemgen F.
      • Kempf J.F.
      Long-term outcomes of latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      • Kim J.W.
      • Nam D.J.
      Arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction by the mini-open modified keyhole technique using an Achilles tendon-bone allograft.
      • Veen E.J.D.
      • Diercks R.L.
      • Landman E.B.M.
      • Koorevaar C.T.
      The results of using a tendon autograft as a new rotator cable for patients with a massive rotator cuff tear: A technical note and comparative outcome analysis.
      • Barber F.A.
      • Ryu R.K.N.
      • Ryu J.H.J.
      • Getelman M.H.
      • Tokish J.M.
      Grafts and patches in rotator cuff surgery: Bioinductive scaffolds, augmentation, interposition, and superior capsule reconstruction.
      • Lacheta L.
      • Millett P.J.
      Editorial Commentary: Superior capsule reconstruction using dermal allograft in posterosuperior rotator cuff tears—do patients benefit and allografts heal?.
      • Lee T.Q.
      Editorial Commentary: Biomechanical investigation of superior capsule reconstruction requires meticulous methods.
      • Lacheta L.
      • Horan M.P.
      • Schairer W.W.
      • et al.
      Clinical and imaging outcomes after arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction with human dermal allograft for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears: A minimum 2-year follow-up.
      • Burkhart S.S.
      • Pranckun J.J.
      • Hartzler R.U.
      Superior capsular reconstruction for the operatively irreparable rotator cuff tear: Clinical outcomes are maintained 2 years after surgery.
      • Li X.
      Editorial Commentary: Is it time to abandon the latissimus dorsi tendon transfer as a salvage procedure for patients with large irreparable rotator cuff tears that failed primary repair?.
      • Muench L.N.
      • Kia C.
      • Williams A.A.
      • et al.
      High clinical failure rate after latissimus dorsi transfer, 2020 transfer for revision massive rotator cuff tears.
      • de Campos Azevedo C.I.
      • Andrade R.
      • Leiria Pires Gago Ângelo A.C.
      • Espregueira-Mendes J.
      • Ferreira N.
      • Sevivas N.
      Fascia lata autograft versus human dermal allograft in arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction for irreparable rotator cuff tears: A systematic review of clinical outcomes.
      • Scheiderer B.
      • Kia C.
      • Obopilwe E.
      • et al.
      Biomechanical effect of superior capsule reconstruction using a 3-mm and 6-mm thick acellular dermal allograft in a dynamic shoulder model.
      • Curtis D.M.
      • Lee C.S.
      • Qin C.
      • et al.
      Superior capsule reconstruction with subacromial allograft spacer: biomechanical cadaveric study of subacromial contact pressure and superior humeral head translation.
      • Mihata T.
      • Lee T.Q.
      • Hasegawa A.
      • et al.
      Five-year follow-up of arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction for irreparable rotator cuff tears.
      Again, there is so much material one could fill an entire encyclopedia.
      Yet, when it comes to shoulder instability, in cases of early surgical intervention bone loss can generally be minimized or avoided, resulting in superior patient outcomes and lower rates of complications.
      • Sheth U.
      Editorial Commentary: Management of first-time anterior shoulder instability requires risk stratification and surgery for many, but not all.
      What is more, this has been well understood for some time.
      • Kirkley A.
      • Werstine R.
      • Ratjek A.
      • Griffin S.
      Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of immediate arthroscopic stabilization versus immobilization and rehabilitation in first traumatic anterior dislocations of the shoulder: Long-term evaluation.
      Similarly, when it comes to rotator cuff tears, in cases of early surgical intervention, irreparable tears can generally be avoided, resulting in superior patient outcomes and lower rates of complications.
      • Keener J.D.
      Editorial Commentary: Progression of degenerative full-thickness rotator cuff tears: Are we finally using natural history data to define at-risk tears?.
      • Trasolini N.A.
      • Waterman B.R.
      Editorial Commentary: Rotator cuff repairs fail at an alarmingly high rate during long-term follow-up: Graft augmentation and biologics may improve future outcomes.
      • Kamijo H.
      • Sugaya H.
      • Takahashi N.
      • et al.
      Arthroscopic repair of isolated subscapularis tears show clinical and structural outcome better for small tears than larger tears.
      Again, this has been well understood for some time.
      • Flury M.P.
      • John M.
      • Goldhahn J.
      • Schwyzer H.K.
      • Simmen B.R.
      Rupture of the subscapularis tendon (isolated or in combination with supraspinatus tear): When is a repair indicated?.
      ,
      • Lähteenmäki H.E.
      • Hiltunen A.
      • Virolainen P.
      • Nelimarkka O.
      Repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears is recommended regardless of tear size and age: A retrospective study of 218 patients.
      What makes little sense is that, if early treatment of shoulder instability and rotator cuff tears results in better outcomes and delayed treatment results in shoulder instability with bone loss and irreparable rotator cuff tears, why is not enough early treatment being performed?
      Delayed treatment of shoulder instability is a problem. A solution could be to educate our colleagues, patients, and the public. An additional solution could be for investigators to conduct original scientific research with a goal of determining the causes of this problem. By better understanding the cause, we may be better positioned to discover necessary solutions.

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        Editorial commentary: Buttoning up after recurrent anterior shoulder instability: The Eden-Hybinette procedure is an effective salvage after failed Latarjet.
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