Shoulder Anteroinferior Glenoid Labrum Reconstruction With the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon Restores Glenohumeral Stability: A Cadaveric Biomechanical Study

Published:September 29, 2022DOI:


      The purpose of this cadaveric study was to determine feasibility and assess biomechanical stability of glenoid labral reconstruction utilizing the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) as a local autograft for labral deficient shoulders.


      Ten cadaveric shoulders underwent resection of all soft tissue structures except the labrum and LHBT. The scapula and humerus were separately attached to a custom shoulder testing apparatus allowing for 22.5 N of compressive isotonic force across the joint. An Instron (Electroplus 1000) measured the peak force (N) as the humeral head was translated over the anteroinferior glenoid rim through 10 cycles. Shoulders were tested in 3 separate scenarios: intact labrum, resected labrum from 3- to 6-o’clock (for a right shoulder), and labral reconstruction with the LHBT. Reconstruction was performed by performing LHBT tenotomy at the level of the pectoralis major insertion. The proximal LHBT tendon, left attached to the supraglenoid tubercle, was then attached to the anteroinferior glenoid rim with suture anchors.


      Mean (SD) length of the LHBT was 76.1 (12.9 mm) and the diameter was 5.9 (1.6) mm. Peak force for intact labrum was significantly greater than the deficient labrum state (14.06 vs 11.78 N; P = .012). Peak force for labral reconstruction (16.67 N) was significantly greater than both intact and deficient labral states (P < .001 and P = .011, respectively). In all specimens, the length for the LHBT to the pectoralis major insertion was sufficient for reconstruction of the labrum to the 6-o’clock position.


      Glenoid labrum reconstruction with the LHBT is a feasible option to restore glenohumeral stability, with peak force to displacement significantly greater than the labral-intact and labral-deficient states.

      Clinical Relevance

      This reconstruction may be an option for augmentation in the labral-deficient shoulder.
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