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The Missouri Osteochondral Preservation System Is Associated With Better Short-Term Outcomes Than Standard Preservation Methods When Performing Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation Using Shell Grafts for Patellofemoral Lesions

Published:October 25, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.10.007

      Purpose

      To compare outcomes after whole-surface osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation using shell grafts for treatment of patellofemoral joint lesions with respect to surfaces treated and OCA preservation method.

      Methods

      With institutional review board approval and informed consent, patients were prospectively enrolled into a registry to follow outcomes after OCA transplantation. Patients who received patellofemoral shell OCA to treat the entire articular surface of the patella, trochlea, or both, and with a minimum of 2-year follow-up data, including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), failures, and complications, were included. Functional graft survival was determined based on patients returning to functional activities without need for OCA revision or arthroplasty surgery and calculated using the formula: 100% – (%revision + %failure). Minimum clinically important differences were determined based on previously validated data. Outcomes were compared based on differences in graft preservation methodology (Missouri Osteochondral Preservation System [MOPS] or standard preservation [SP]) and based on surfaces treated (patella, trochlea, or both).

      Results

      Fifty-eight patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 36.7 years (range 15-60 years) and mean body mass index was 28.9 (range 18-42). OCAs stored using SP methods were transplanted in 12 patients, mean follow-up was (66.1 months; range 54-70 months): OCAs stored using MOPS methods were transplanted in 46 patients, mean follow-up was (44.8 months; range 24-60 months). Graft survival rate at final follow-up was significantly greater (P = .025) for MOPS OCAs (98%) compared with SP OCAs (75%), whereas 2-year functional graft survival rates (MOPS 98% vs SP 83%; P = .1) were not. Reoperation rate was significantly greater (P = .0014) for SP cases compared with MOPS cases. PROMs showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements through 4 years after unipolar patella, unipolar trochlea, and bipolar patellofemoral OCA transplantation using MOPS grafts. Unipolar patella OCA transplantations were associated with significantly more reduction in pain and significantly better PROMs at 1-year compared with unipolar trochlea and bipolar patellofemoral OCAs. Conclusions: OCA transplantation using MOPS shell grafts for unipolar and bipolar patellofemoral resurfacing was associated with statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from preoperative levels of pain and function. The 2-year functional graft survival rate was 83% in the SP group and 98% in the MOPS group, such that MOPS was associated with better short-term outcomes than SP methods when performing OCA transplantation using shell grafts for patellofemoral lesions. Patients who received unipolar patella allografts reported the best outcomes in terms of pain and function.

      Level of Evidence

      Level III, retrospective analysis of registry data.
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