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Biomechanical Comparison of 3 Medial Patellofemoral Complex Reconstruction Techniques Shows Medial Overconstraint but no Significant Difference in Patella Lateralization and Contact Pressure

  • Falko Dahm
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Dr. Falko Dahm, M.D., Holland Bone and Joint Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Ave., Toronto, ON, M4N 3M5, Canada.
    Affiliations
    Holland Bone and Joint Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ F.D. and H.S. contributed equally to this work.
    Hassan Syed
    Footnotes
    ∗ F.D. and H.S. contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Holland Bone and Joint Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    University of Toronto Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Women’s College Hospital Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Institute for Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Sebastian Tomescu
    Affiliations
    Holland Bone and Joint Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    University of Toronto Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Women’s College Hospital Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Heng An Lin
    Affiliations
    Holland Bone and Joint Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    University of Toronto Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Women’s College Hospital Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sengkang General Hospital, Singapore
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  • Yaron Haimovich
    Affiliations
    Holland Bone and Joint Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Naveen Chandrashekar
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel; and Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
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  • Cari Whyne
    Affiliations
    Holland Bone and Joint Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Institute for Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • David Wasserstein
    Affiliations
    Holland Bone and Joint Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    University of Toronto Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Women’s College Hospital Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Institute for Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ F.D. and H.S. contributed equally to this work.
Published:October 31, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.10.027

      Purpose

      The purpose of this study was to investigate biomechanical differences of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction, medial quadriceps tendon femoral ligament (MQTFL) reconstruction, and a combination of these techniques to restore lateral patellar constraint and contact pressures.

      Methods

      Eight fresh frozen cadaver knees were mounted to a custom jig with physiological quadriceps tendon loading. Flexion angles and contact pressure (CP) were dynamically measured using Tekscan® pressure sensors and Polhemus® Liberty 6 degree of freedom (6DOF) positioning sensors in the following conditions: 1) intact 2) MPFL and MQTFL deficient, 3) MPFL reconstructed, 4) Combined MPFL + MQTFL reconstructed, and 5) MQTFL reconstructed. Lateral patellar translation was tested using horizontally directed 30 N force applied at 30° of knee flexion. The knees were flexed in dynamic fashion, and CP values were recorded for 10°, 20°, 30°, 50°, 70°, and 90° degrees of flexion. Group differences were assessed with ANOVA’s followed by pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni correction.

      Results

      MPFL (P = .002) and combined MPFL/MQTFL (P = .034) reconstruction significantly reduced patellar lateralization from +19.28% (9.78%, 28.78%) in the deficient condition to −17.57% (−27.84%, −7.29%) and −15.56% (−33.61%, 2.30%), respectively. MPFL reconstruction was most restrictive and MQTFL reconstruction the least −7.29% (−22.01%, 7.45%). No significant differences were found between the three reconstruction techniques. Differences in CP between the three reconstruction techniques were not significant (<.02 MPa) at all flexion angles.

      Conclusion

      The present study found no significant difference for patellar lateralization and patellofemoral CP between MPFL, combined MPFL/MQTFL, and MQTFL reconstruction. All 3 techniques resulted in stronger lateral patellar constraint compared to the native state, while the MQTFL reconstruction emulated the intact state the closest.

      Clinical Relevance

      Various surgical techniques for medial patellofemoral complex reconstruction can restore patellar stability with similar patellofemoral articular pressures.
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