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Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism After Hip Arthroscopy Is Low With or Without Prophylaxis but Risk Factors Include Oral Contraceptive Use, Obesity, and Malignancy

Published:November 01, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.10.029

      Purpose

      To determine the incidence of and risk factors for symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) after hip arthroscopy (HA) and thromboprophylaxis prescription utilization for this procedure.

      Methods

      The PearlDiver Mariner database was queried using Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) who underwent HA between 2010 and 2020. Patient demographic information, including age, oral contraceptive use, and medical comorbidities, as well as perioperative thromboprophylaxis utilization, was recorded using International Classification of Diseases codes and National Drug Codes. The incidence of postoperative VTE within 90 days was determined. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of perioperative thromboprophylaxis utilization and risk factors for VTE.

      Results

      The queried records identified 60,181 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 367 (0.6%) experienced VTE, including deep venous thrombosis (0.5%) and/or pulmonary embolism (0.2%). Approximately 2.1% of patients used thromboprophylaxis, including aspirin (1.1%), low-molecular-weight heparin (0.9%), and oral factor Xa inhibitors (0.1%). Oral contraceptive pill use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-3.46), obesity (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.79), and a history of malignancy (aOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.12-2.54) were associated with increased odds of experiencing VTE. Perioperative thromboprophylaxis (aOR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.19-1.39) was not significantly associated with decreased odds of experiencing VTE. However, obesity (aOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.00-1.38) and hypertension (aOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.36) were associated with increased odds of thromboprophylaxis prescription utilization.

      Conclusions

      Although the overall risk of symptomatic VTE after HA remains low, oral contraceptive use, obesity, and a history of malignancy are associated with increased odds of thromboembolic events within 90 days. Routine thromboprophylaxis after HA may not be indicated in all patients but can be considered based on patient-specific risk factors.

      Level of Evidence

      Level III, retrospective prognostic comparative trial.
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