Biceps Tenodesis in Patients Age 35 Years and Younger Yields Favorable Clinical Outcomes With Variable Rates of Return to Sport and Complications: A Systematic Review

Published:December 14, 2022DOI:


      To systematically evaluate reported clinical outcomes, return-to-sport (RTS) rates, and complications following biceps tenodesis in patients aged 35 years and younger and compare outcomes between overhead and nonoverhead athletes.


      A literature search was performed by querying Scopus, EMBASE, and PubMed computerized databases from database inception through August 2022 in accordance with the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Studies that evaluated clinical outcomes following biceps tenodesis in patients aged 35 years or younger were included. Study quality was assessed via the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies criteria. Clinical outcomes, RTS rates, and complications were aggregated.


      Nine studies from 2011 to 2022 comprising 161 patients (mean age, 25 years; range, 19.7-28.9 years) were included. At an average follow-up of 59 months, postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score ranged from 81.6 to 96 and the mean visual analog scale score ranged from 0 to 2.1. Mean overall RTS rate ranged from 35% to 100% for the entire patient cohort 35% to 86% among overhead athletes, and 46% to 100% among nonoverhead athletes. Among the overhead athletes, 24 were baseball pitchers. 17% to 100% able to return to sport at any level. Complications were reported in 0% to 19% of patients. 0 to 18% of patients underwent revision surgery.


      Biceps tenodesis in patients 35 years of age and younger yields a wide variability in reported RTS rates, excellent clinical outcome scores, and low but variable reported rates of complications, reoperations, and failure.

      Level of Evidence

      IV; Systematic Review of Level III and IV studies.
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