Systematic Review|Articles in Press

Low Ceiling Effects of the Forgotten Joint Score Compared With Legacy Measures After Joint-Preserving Procedures: A Systematic Review

Published:February 18, 2023DOI:


      To determine, in patients undergoing joint preservation procedures, whether the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) compares favorably with legacy measures.


      Medical databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase databases) were queried for publications with the terms “Forgotten Joint Score” and “hip,” “knee,” “arthroscopy,” or “ACL.” Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodologic quality was assessed through the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist, and psychometric data were evaluated for ceiling or floor effects, convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability, responsiveness, measurement invariance, and measurement error by 2 fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons (B.D.K. and W.T.H.).


      Data were collected from 14 studies using the FJS after joint-preserving procedures in 911 patients (959 joints). Four studies reported strong internal consistency with an average Cronbach α of 0.92. Two studies reported responsiveness with an effect size ranging from 0.6 to 1.16. One study reported reproducibility with an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-0.9). One study reported measurement error with an minimum detectable change (MDC)individual of 32% and MDCgroup of 4.5%. Studies reported moderate to very strong convergent validity across legacy measures for hip and knee preservation surgery. Ceiling effects were favorable compared with many legacy scores for hip and knee preservation. Three studies reported the minimal clinically important difference whereas 1 study reported the patient acceptable symptomatic state for the FJS.


      The FJS is a methodologically sound outcome measure used to evaluate patient outcomes after hip and knee preservation surgery with overall low ceiling effects compared with legacy measures.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV, systematic review of Level III and IV studies.
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